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Articles by S. Ravichandran
Total Records ( 16 ) for S. Ravichandran
  J. Rosenstock , J. L. Gross , C. Aguilar-Salinas , M. Hissa , N. Berglind , S. Ravichandran and D. Fleming


To evaluate the safety of saxagliptin ± metformin over 4 years in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Drug-naive (n = 401; study 11) or metformin-treated (n = 743; study 14) adults with HbA1c of 53-86 mmol/mol (7.0-10%) were enrolled in two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of saxagliptin 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/day. Patients rescued during or completing 24 weeks of treatment could continue in a 42-month long-term blinded phase, for which the primary goal was assessment of safety and tolerability. Between-group efficacy was not evaluated in the long-term phase of study 11. Time to rescue or discontinuation because of inadequate glycaemic control, change from baseline in HbA1c and percentages of patients achieving HbA1c < 53 mmol/mol (< 7.0%) were assessed in study 14.


No new safety findings were noted during the long-term phase. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, with slightly greater frequency of upper respiratory infections with saxagliptin. Hypoglycaemic event rates were similar with saxagliptin and placebo. In study 14, time to rescue or discontinuation because of inadequate glycaemic control was longer with saxagliptin plus metformin than for placebo plus metformin. From baseline to week 154, HbA1c decreased with saxagliptin but increased with placebo.


Saxagliptin monotherapy or add-on to metformin is generally safe and well tolerated, with no increased risk of hypoglycaemia, for up to 4 years.

  R. Ramesh and S. Ravichandran
  This study is to find out the nutritive value of the meat of T. brunneus and to ascertain the relationship between seasonal variations in biochemical components and reproductive cycle. The monthly variations in the biochemical constituents were estimated in different body organs such as foot, gonad, digestive gland and mantle for both male and female gastropods. Carbohydrate content of gonad is high during May 2002 in males (5.30%) and females (6.14%). The percentage of lipid is high (4.85%) in ovary during May 2002 and low in October 2002 (3.10%). In testis, the values range from 3.0 (September 2002) to 4.20% (May 2002), respectively. The gonadal tissues show major variations in lipid values, whereas the percentage variation is negligible in mantle, which ranges from 1.64-1.74% in males and 1.59-1.78% in females. The lipid valued decreases from June to October and the values showed little fluctuations from the minimum value until December. But, in the digestive gland, the percentage is higher in September 2002 in males (3.06%) and October 2003 in females (2.96%) and low in May 2003 (2.4 and 2.12%) in both the sexes. The protein contents of the digestive gland shows a clear seasonal variation, which is negatively correlated with that of other body organs.
  P. Soundarapandian , N. John Samuel , S. Ravichandran and T. Kannupandi
  In this study, the distribution of crabs in Pichavaram was recorded from December 2001 to November 2002 at monthly intervals. The species present on the substratum and on the vegetation area were recorded in quadrant each measuring 1 m2. There are about 36 crabs species are distributed in Pichavaram mangrove environment. Crabs belonging to the family Grapsidae and Ocypodidae are most dominant forms. Substrate suitability; effects of tidal inundation and distribution of mangrove plants were the possible factors that could influence zonation and abundance of the crabs in the Pichavaram mangroves. The reason for depletion of crabs and their conservation measures are also discussed.
  R. Ramesh and S. Ravichandran
  S. Ravichandran , K. Kumaravel and E. Pamela Florence
  The aim of the present study was to validate out the nutritive value of six important commercial fishes from India. Nutritive parameters which include carbohydrate, protein, fatty acid and Moisture content were estimated biochemically. The moisture content in the case of the two brackish water fishes namely Lates calcarifer and Mugil cephalus varies from 77.6 to 81.2% and the highest is found in L. calcarifer. Analysis of protein were carried out in the total number of six fishes inhabiting three ecosystems namely brackish, fresh and marine water ecosystem However, in the case of marine fishes the protein content showed much fluctuation. It ranged from 17.04 to 28.01%. In the case of Sardinella longiceps, the protein content is the lowest 17.04%. Catla catla exhibited lipid content of 1.5% where as in Oreochromis mossambicus the lowest value of 0.45% was observed. The highest amount of carbohydrate was found in the Lates calcarifer, the value being 20.8% where as in Mugil cephalus the carbohydrate content was 18.3% only. The fatty acid composition of the fresh water reported here show marked differences in quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially C22:6n3 (Docosahexaenoic Acid) compared to various other species analyzed. Overall these data on fresh water fish particularly are highly unsaturated with a high concentration of C22: 6n3. From this investigation it is concluded that each habitat group of fishes has its own biological value.
  S. Ravichandran , F.R. Sharmila Joseph , R. Kanagalakshmi and M.S. Ramya
  The chemical compositions of fishes vary and are closely related to feed intake, migratory swimming and sexual changes in connection with spawning. The nutritive composition of many marine, estuarine and fresh water fishes were determined and have been implemented in fish consumption. Nutritive composition of Dussumieria acuta and Sardinella brachysoma were not yet determined and the present study was dealt with these fishes. Fatty acids, Vitamins (fat soluble and water soluble) and Minerals were quantified. Palmitic acid showed its higher level in both species (5.78 and 3.89%) in D. acuta and S. brachysoma, respectively). Water-soluble vitamins were higher in D. acuta and fat-soluble vitamins showed higher percentage availability in S. brachysoma. Calcium was the predominant mineral in both fishes and can be consumed by humans for bone strength. The finding has proved with strong evidence that both the fishes undertaken for the present study are rich in most of the nutrients essential for proper health maintenance of humans.
  E. Rethna Priya and S. Ravichandran
  Marine invertebrates are constantly exposed to high concentrations of microorganisms. In crustaceans, the defense system against microbes rests largely on cellular activities performed by hemocytes such as adhension, phagocytosis, encapsulation, nodule formation and melanisation. The potential of marine crabs as a source of biologically active products is largely unexplored. In the present study, anticancer activity of the hemolymph of brachyuran crab Calappa calappa was assayed with standard MTT colorimetric procedure against a range of human cell lines viz., MCF -7, HepG2, HT-29, Rhabdomyosarcoma, A549. Cell Viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the morphological characteristics were analyzed through phase contrast microscope. The results showed remarkable cytotoxicity against all the cells. The results obtained from the MTT assay showed that the tested samples were significantly reduced the viability of all the tested cell lines in a dose-dependent manner upon 48 h of exposure, the results were recorded in IC50. The present results revealed that the crab C. calappa might be a potential alternative agent for human cancer therapy.
  Bilal Ahmad Bhat , S. Ravichandran and Sartaj Ahmad Allayie
  Biochemical studies are very important from the nutritional point of view. The biochemical constituents in animals are known to vary with season, size of the animal, stage of maturity, temperature and availability of food also to elucidate the osmoregulatory ion concentration. The present study quantified the nutritive value of sea food and the ionic regulation which is good measure for leading a fruitful aquaculture. So for methods used for the detection of sodium and chlorideion concentrations are Elico digital flame photometer. Biochemical composition of hemolymph and different tissues was carried out and it has been observed that more protein content were found in eyestalk extract injected female crabs (64.0%) while as less percentage was found in normal female crab (10.66%) and lipids were found more in injected female and ablated male (16.8 mg mL-1) while it is very low in normal male crab (12.6 mg mL-1). Carbohydrate percentage was found more in ablated male (7.6%) and less in eyestalk extract injected male (3.3%). The variations of the sodium and chloride ionic level in the hemolymph were studied by comparing the levels in the experimental animals with that of control animals. In the ablated animals of male crabs, the hemolymph showed decreased sodiumionic level (428 milliequivalent L-1) when compared to control animals while as in female it showed increase in the Na+ ion concentration (454 milliequivalent L-1). However, eyestalk extract injected animals of both sexes at the final stage showed a much increase in the sodium ionic level when compared to control and ablated animals.
  F.R. Sharmila Joseph and S. Ravichandran
  Shell fishes like crustaceans and molluscs are often prone to shell diseases. Among crustaceans, crabs, lobsters and shrimps are largely infected by infectious pathogens and various environmental stresses. Viruses are commonly seen in shells of shrimps, whereas dinoflagellate is predominant in lobsters. Crabs are infected in higher extend than any other crustacean. Shell disease syndrome in brachyuran crabs is characterized by damaged external manifestation of colored lesions in the exoskeletons. Bacteria (Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas), viruses (WSSV), fungi (yeast) and several other pathogens influence the higher percent of shell disease in crabs. Crabs with shell diseases are prone to internal damages causing variation in haemocyte counts and histopathological alteration in internal tissue and organs. Infections in crab may lead to great economic loss. This review discusses about the causes, types, histopathology, genetic variability, hematology, humoral defense mechanism and host susceptibility hypothesis of brachyuran crab shell diseases.
  S. Ravichandran , S. Anthonisamy , T. Kannupandi and T. Balasubramanian
  The diversity of the crabs in the Pichavaram mangroves for the first time has shown that there are 46 species of crabs from the five different stations. The neritic zone (Chinnavaikal) was rich in species composition (35 species). The freshwater zone was poor in species composition (14 species) and population density. Among the crab species Sesarma and Uca species were dominant in almost all the stations. Grapsid crabs were the most dominant species. Neritic and Avicennia zones showed more number of crab species but less number of species was noted in slightly saline zone. The substrate suitability, tidal inundations mangroves distribution and salinity were the possible factors for distribution of crabs in Pichavaram mangroves.
  S. Ravichandran and T.T. Ajithkumar
  Parasitation of isopod, Joryma brachysoma was observed in Ilisha melastoma collected from fish catches off Parangipettai coastal environment, southeast coast of India. In parasitized fish skin lesions were observed in the gill and body surface due to the attachment of parasite. In the lesioned spots a heavy load of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria was observed. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. anguillarum were abundant at the site of parasitic lesion. The microbial load in the parasitized fish was significantly higher. Cenocytic fungal pathogens were also isolated from the lesioned sites.
  Bilal Ahmad Bhat , C. Elanchezhiyan , S. Ravichandran , Sartaj Ahmad Allayie , S. Hemalatha , V. Manoharan , Shabir Ahmad Rather and Mohmad Ishaq Bhat
  The present study is focused to see the effect of crustacean neuroendocrine organs on the water and calcium metabolism which is very much important for the osmoregulatory functions. Since the experiments were carried out to investigate the control of water contents and calcium concentration in the crab, Ocypode macrocera. The animals were collected from the shore of the Bay of the Bengal near Annan Koil one among the biggest landing centers of south east coast of Tamil Nadu, India. The data revealed that water content in the hepatopancreas and thoracic muscle of the control crab were 70.16 and 79.86%, respectively, whereas in the experimental ones, the values were 80.32 and 87.44% after eyestalk removal and 54.52 and 66.98% after eyestalk extract injection. Calcium concentration in both the hepatopancreas and thoracic muscle of the control crab were 2.16 and 2.14 mg g-1, respectively, whereas in the experimental animals the values were 2.76 and 3.52 mg g-1 in the eyestalkless crabs and 1.52 and 1.57 mg g-1 after eyestalk extract injection, respectively. Hence it was observed the % of water content is more in eyestalk less crabs as compared to that of control and injected. The roles of neurosecretory secretions, which control these parameters, were discussed. The ability for Ocypode macrocera to adapt rapidly and maintain homeostasis in a wide range of abnormality supports the fact that Ocypode macrocera are a suitable species for land-based aquaculture in ponds as well as critical condition where rapid fluctuation in salinity can occur.
  S. Ravichandran , A. Anthonisamy , T. Kannupandi and T. Balasubramanian
  Leaf consuming mangrove crabs play an important role in the initial processing of litter in low to mid intertidal riverine and fringing forests. In Pichavaram mangrove, the sesarmid crabs are dominant, leading mostly herbivorous mode of life and play a vital role in the process of leaf degradation and thus in biogeochemical cycles. The gut content analysis also showed they are mainly consumed vascular plant matter (58.33 to 72.54%). Sesarmid crabs strongly preferred 40 day decomposed Avicennia marina leaves when both fresh and 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 90 and 100 days decomposed leaves of A. marina, Rhizophora mucronata and Acanthus ilicifolius were offered. Sesarmid crabs are important not only because of their burrowing activities, which can affect nutrient cycling and forest productivity but also their role as a link in the food web in the mangrove ecosystem.
  R. Ramesh and S. Ravichandran
  The length-weight and other allometric relationship of Turbo brunneus from Tuticorin (Southeast coast of India) coastal waters have not been subjected to through analysis earlier. Totally 778 males and 749 females were collected for the present study. For Length-weight analysis, the males and females of Turbo brunneus were fit with linear equation individually. The present study shows that the differences in the growth rate between male and female snails may also leads to the variation. Analysis of covariance revealed significant difference between males and females. The correlation co-efficient values between length and weight in male and female were significant. Changes in the constant allometry of length-weight relationship are associated with an increase in size and sexual maturity. The correlation co-efficient values between length and weight in male and female were significant. From the results obtained through the statistical analysis on various shell characters it is found that the shell of T. brunneus also conforms to the equiangular spire model as reported in other snails having turbinate shells.
  A. Veeruraj , S. Ravichandran and G. Ramesh Kumar
  The present investigation was taken up to study the antibacterial activity of haemolymph extracts from six different species of crabs (Scylla tranquebarica, S. serreta, Nanosesarma minutum, Neoepisesarma tetragonum, Metapograpsus maculatus and Macropthalmus depressus). Two positive controls Amphicillin (p1) and Erythromycin (p2) was also used. Investigation against a range of 10 different bacterial strains was used. The result demonstrated that the crab haemolymph of crude samples tested against gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacterial strains and two antibiotic resistant strains were used. In antibacterial activity the highest zone of inhibition was observed in the haemolymph of Scylla tranquberica against Vibrio cholerae (10 mm) and lowest zone of inhibition was observed in the haemolyph of M. depressus against S. paratyphi-B and S. typhi (5 mm). The present study indicates that the haemolymph of crabs would be a good source of antimicrobial agents and would replace the existing inadequate and cost effective antibiotics.
  R. Ramesh and S. Ravichandran
  Scanning Electron Microscopic studies on the radula of Turbo brunneus was made to study the anatomy of feeding apparatus. Feeding experiment was carried out to find out algal preference and rate of consumption. Study on the radula of Turbo brunneus possesses a large central rachidian tooth, five lateral teeth and many marginal teeth. The inner marginal situated towards the lateral teeth are formed of a strong extended primary cusp and a short secondary cusp along outer margin. Observation of T. brunneus in its natural habitat shows that they are mainly found in thickly grown algal fronds of Rhodophytes such as Hypnea sp. Ceramium miniatum and Gracilaria sp. Analysis on the gut content shows that the species of algae found in the gut vary during different months. The Rhodophytes dominate during most of the months. Crustose coralline algae always form a considerable part in the gut content during all seasons. Turbo brunneus consumed most of the algae fed to them, Ceramium miniatum and Hypnea muciformis are found to be higher with 3.67% and 3.46% b.wt. day-1, respectively.
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