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Articles by Wei Li
Total Records ( 33 ) for Wei Li
  Ping-ping Zhuang , Qin-ce Ren , Wei Li and Guo-Yue Chen
  To estimate the allelic variation at the expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) among Persian wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. carthlicum L.) accessions collected from fifteen countries and provide information for wheat breeding and improvement in southwest China, 87 Persian wheat accessions from fifteen countries were investigated by using EST-SSR markers. EST-SSRs were molecular markers belonging to the transcribed region of the genome. Therefore, any polymorphism detected by EST-SSRs might reflect better relationship among species or varieties. Fourteen primer pairs could successfully amplify the fragments in the 87 accessions, of which tri-nucleotide repeats were the dominant type. A total of 33 eSSR alleles were detected, and the number of alleles detected by single pair primers ranged from 3 to 7 per locus, with an average of 3.71. Clustering analysis suggested that most of the accessions with adjacent geographic origins had the tendency to cluster together. Therefore, when used in Persian wheat genetic analysis, EST-SSR markers not only act as genetic markers but also reveal differences in related gene expression.
  Yongxin Yu , Wei Li , Barbara Wojciechowski , Alicia J. Jenkins and Timothy J. Lyons
  Hyperglycemia may contribute directly to pericyte loss and capillary leakage in early diabetic retinopathy. To elucidate relative contributions of glycation, glycoxidation, sugar autoxidation, osmotic stress and metabolic effects in glucose-mediated capillary damage, we tested the effects of D-glucose, L-glucose, mannitol and the potentially protective effects of aminoguanidine on cultured bovine retinal capillary pericytes and endothelial cells. Media (containing 5 mM D-glucose) were supplemented to increase the concentration of each sugar by 5, 10, or 20 mM. Subconfluent pericytes and endothelial cells were exposed to the supplemented media in the presence or absence of aminoguanidine (1 nM-100 μM) for three days. Cell counts, viability and protein were determined. For both cell types, all three sugars produced concentration-dependent decreases in cell counts and protein content (p<0.001), with D-glucose being the most toxic (p<0.001). The effects of L-glucose and mannitol were similar, suggesting an osmotic contribution to the observed toxicity. Very low concentrations of aminoguanidine, in the range 0.1-1 μM, abolished the toxicity of all three sugars towards both cell types. The data suggest that D-glucose-mediated toxicity has both intra- and extra-cellular components and that both can be blocked by aminoguanidine. The efficacy of aminoguanidine at nanomolar concentrations suggests an action through scavenging reactive carbonyls (whether generated by oxidative or metabolic processes) and/or by enzyme inhibition. In addition, aminoguanidine may protect against the consequences of osmotic stress.
  Leilei Xu , Wei Li , Jianglei Hu , Xia Yang and Yihang Guo
  Mesoporous Ta2O5 materials functionalized with both alkyl group and a Keggin-type heteropoly acid, Ta2O5/SiO2-[H3PW12O40/R] (R = Me or Ph), was prepared by a single step sol–gel co-condensation method followed by a hydrothermal treatment in the presence of a triblock copolymer surfactant. The catalytic performance of the resulting multifunctionalized organic–inorganic hybrid materials was evaluated by a direct use of soybean oil for biodiesel production in the presence of 20 wt% myristic acid under atmosphere refluxing, and the influences of the catalyst preparation approaches, functional component loadings, and molar ratios of oil to methanol on the catalytic activity of the Ta2O5/SiO2-[H3PW12O40/R] were studied. In addition, the recyclability of the hybrid materials was evaluated via four catalytic runs. Finally, the network structures of the hybrid materials and the functions of the incorporated alkyl groups on the catalytic activity of the materials were put forward.
  Li-Juan Yang , Ya-Xi Liu , Bi-Ling Xu , Wei Li and Guo-Yue Chen
  One hundred and thirteen low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits encoding sequences and parts of upstream were characterized from Triticum dicoccoides. The encoded proteins of 113 genes had similar structures to previously characterized LMW-GS. These sequences had 856~1402 nucleotides in length with 2~26 repeat motifs. Most of the sequences were typical LMW-m glutenin subunits genes and the frequency of SNPs was 1.6 out of 10 bases and A-G mutation was the most frequent. Fourteen deduced amino acid sequences were found to be possessed with an additional cysteine residue in C-ter I. Thirty-six haplotypes were detected and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 36 haplotypes could be classified into 3 haplotype groups. Individually classifications based on the four main domains of LMW-GS DNA sequences, 5’flanking, single peptide, N-terminals and C-terminal, were in agreement with the classification based on the coding regions. Consilient evolution was found between domains of LMW-GS as well as each domain and the whole coding region. The results revealed the important information of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene family and contributed to our understanding of functional aspects of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes.
  Li-Juan Xiong , Wei Li , Yu-Ming Wei and You-Liang Zheng
  In order to exploit new genetic resources and provide fundamental materials for the breeding improvement of bread wheat quality, genetic variation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and gliadin in 29 macha wheat accessions were observed by acidic polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Nine HMW-glutenin subunits alleles and 9 combinations were identified. Subunit null (82.8%), 7+8 (53.3%) and 2+12 (82.8%) scored the highest frequency at Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively. In addition, subunits 7+9 (23.3%) was also found at higher frequency. A total of 49 gliadin bands and 28 patterns were detected and the polymorph among all accessions was identified in most of bands (97.96%). Furthermore, all materials could be clustered into three major groups based on genetic similarity coefficient. The results indicated that the variations of gliadin among macha accessions were not associated with their geographic origins.
  Wei Li , An-Jun Liu , Yu-Zhen Sheng , Guo-Yue Cheng , Zi-En Pu and Ya-Xi Liu
  In order to exploiting new genetic resources for the wheat breeding, nine waxy genes (granule-bound starch synthase, GBSSI) were obtained from wild species, Aegilops tauschii (DD) by special primer PCR cloning. These sequences showed the higher similarity to the sequences of Wx-D1 locus in common wheat. The analysis of variation and alignment of sequences showed that all the sequences could be distinguished, although from the same species. Out of 35 variable sites of nucleotide in the whole sequences, twelve variable sites located on the region of exon and made six amino acid residues change. Most of variable sites located on transit peptide. Using neighbour-joining method, phylogenetic tree suggested that the sequences of waxy gene from Ae. tauschii were clustered closely with the sequences of Wx-D1 locus and far with the sequence of Wx-A1 and Waxy-B1 loci in Triticum L.. Moreover, Ae. tauschii showed more close relationship with Triticum L. and barley and had more close relationship with barley and far distance with rice, potato, pea and Arabidopsis. These results would contribute to the deep understanding of functional aspects and evolution of waxy gene and the improving of starch quality in common wheat.
  Wei Li , Meihong Liu , Deren Gong and Dengping Duan
  A Huber-based Kalman Filter (HKF) is presented to non-Gaussian random measurement errors. The measurement noise uncertainty is tackled at each filter step by minimizing a criterion function that is original from Huber technique. A recursive algorithm is also provided to solve the criterion function. The proposed HKF algorithm has been tested in attitude estimation using gyroscope and star tracker sensors for a single spacecraft in flight simulations. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed filter as compared to the standard Kalman Filter (KF) in the presence of non-Gaussian measurement noise.
  Xiao Liang , Wei Li and Weitong Fan
  Great successes have been made in applications of information fusion in the mode recognition and state evaluation. It is the same that the application of information fusion in the motion control system of underwater vehicles will greatly promote the development of control technology. This study proposes a layered multi-loop control system used the technology of information fusion. It recurs to the layered fusion and multi-level feedback of information to perfect the control system and then improve the control performance and intelligence behaviors of underwater vehicles.
  Qinsheng Du , Xiongfei Li and Wei Li
  This study proposes a method that separates the resource discovery process and resource sharing process from the implementation. We define two private protocols PIEP and PDEP under IPv6 environment. These two protocols can serve the process of the resource discovery and the resource sharing process. The PIEP uses small-world model to find resource information, while the PDEP has a smaller protocol header, so as to achieve the purpose of improving the network utilization.
  Erchao Li , Zhanming Li and Wei Li
  For the cucumber harvesting robot, the recognition is the important steps. First of all, segmentation of cucumber image is required. Aiming at the problems that BP algorithm has slow convergence rate and is likely to fall into local minimum point, Chaotic mechanism is introduced to LMBP algorithm and the problem of local limit value for network is solved using global moving characteristic of chaotic mechanism is weight optimization, it can make convergence rate of network faster. The research result of applying the improved BP algorithm to the segmentation of cucumber image shows that the new method had good effect on separating the cucumber from its background.
  Hanqian Wu , Wei Li , Chuck Winer and Li Yao
  As the next generation of networking computing, cloud computing can offer both software and hardware as on-demand resources and services over the Internet and therefore reduce the capital expenditure and operational expenditure for IT consumers. In order to realize these purposes, however, there are still some challenges to be solved. With no doubts, security is the most concerned issue. This is why security must be integrated into every aspect of cloud computing. Virtualization is the key technology to build a cloud computing platform, as a result, virtualization security is one of the significant concerns in cloud computing. In this paper, we focus on the security of virtual network in virtualized environment. First, we research Xen platform which is the most popular hypervisor used in the industry and then the security problems that exist in a virtual network are discussed and analysed based on Xen platform. Finally this paper presents a multi-layer virtual network framework aimed to control the inter-communication among virtual machines deployed in physical machines with higher security.
  Gaoshui Yu , Wenlong Zhang , Yong Huang , Li Ding , Wei Li , Zhaocai Li , Dan Xu , Feng Dong , Qian Du and Dewen Tong
  Ghrelin, a gastric acylated peptide has been shown to express in gastrointestinal tract of many animals. However, little is known about its expression pattern in gastrointestinal tract of ruminants such as goat. In this study, researchers investigated the expression and distribution of ghrelin in the gastrointestinal tract of goat (Saanen dairy goat) including esophagus, rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, appendix, colon and rectum by PCR, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot. The PCR detection showed that ghrelin mRNA existed in all the above tissues and was significantly higher in the abomasus than in other tissues detected (p<0.05). Immunohistochemistry assay showed that ghrelin-positive cells were observed in the mucosal layer of all segments examined. The ghrelin-positive cells were most numerous in the abomasus, less abundant in the duodenum, occasional in jejunum, ileum, appendix, colon and rectum and rare in esophagus, rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasus. Western blot analysis confirmed the ghrelin protein expression pattern in the gastrointestinal tract of the goat. These results demonstrate that ghrelin is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of Saanen dairy goat, especially in the abomasus.
  Fang Wang , Wei Li , Yongli Qu , Jun Bao and Yuanhu Yin
  Proteomics is an important supplement for genomics research, every process of life is controlled by interactions between proteins. Proteomics is an objective, complicated, interlaced and precision controlled response network and is widely used in the study of animal development, physiological ecology and diseases, etc. Systems biology is used to sort and integrate these research results, furthermore explain the phenomenon of life at the protein level. This requires researchers of genetics, chemistry, biology, cell biology, engineering, mathematics, informatics and multi-disciplinary to make efforts collectively. In this study, researchers review the current status of proteomic technologies, discuss the research on proteomics in bovine and the development prospect of proteomics.
  Wei Li , Yongli Qu , Jun Bao , Fang Wang , Yuanhu Yin , Sujun Miao , Xihan Yin , Xue Yuan and Yunsheng Han
  In the world wide, it is very common that calves feed Total Mixed Rations (TMR). In this study, researchers want to evaluate TMR feed plus early weaned whether it is one kind of burden to the calves’ digestive function. Thirty nine Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to 3 groups: Early-Weaned (EW), Low Quantity Milk (LQM) and High Quantity Milk (HQM) to evaluate the effect of diets on the calves’ grow and rumen function. The calves were slaughtered at the 0, 7, 30, 60 and 90 days in each group. The activity of protease among the three groups increased with calves’ growth and activity in EW and LQW did not differ was lower than that in HQM. pH of ruminal fluid in HQW was lower than that in EW and LQM at the 30 and 60 days but did not differ at 7 and 90 days. The calves that were fed without solid feed before 60 days had stunted growth of ruminal papillae length (white colour). This study suggests that it could prevent the ruminal function from formation that calves only intake liquid food before the 60 days. Calves feed TMR and early weaned may stimulated the development of rumen digestion function.
  Xing Chen , Wei Li , Yuming Wei , Guoyue Chen and Youliang Zheng
  The aim of this research was to isolate and characterize the α-gliadin genes from T. turgidum ssp. paleocolchium. Nine genes were isolated from T. turgidum ssp. paleocolchicum (2n = 4x = 28, AABB) using the designed primers PF1 and PF2. The deduced protein sequences of the nine genes share the same typical polypeptide structures with known α-gliadin sequences. Among the nine α-gliadin genes, only Gli1-7 and Gli 2-4 encoded putative mature proteins and the others were assumed to be pseudogenes due to their in-frame stop codon, which are attributed to the single base change C to T. Multi-alignment analysis indicated that the difference of the nine sequences mainly existed in the repetitive domain and the two polyglutamine regions. The repetitive domain could be considered as the array of 14 motifs based on the codon series CCA TT/AT CCA/G CAR, where CAR represents a 3-6 glutamine codon-rich region. Almost all codons in polyglutamine domains encode glutamine. However, 26 codons are not glutamine codons, which mainly resulted from single base changes. It is also found that the polyglutamine domain II is more variable than the polyglutamine domain I. Gli1-2 contained an extra cysteine, which was created by a serine-to-cysteine residue change at position 240, thus, it would have one free cysteine for intermolecular disulfide bond formation. Cluster analysis showed that sequences Gli1-10, Gli2-5 and Gli2-4 might be obtained from the genome A, whereas Gli2-2 and Gli1-9 from the genome B.
  Wei Li , An-Jun Liu , Yu-Zhen Sheng , Zi-En Pu , Ya-Xi Liu and Guo-Yue Cheng
  In order to knowing the variation of starch synthase I (SSI) in Triticum L. and Aegilops and exploiting new gene resources for the improving of starch quality in common wheat, using PCR cloning, eight sequences of SSI genes were obtained from AS60 (DD, Aegilops tauschii), AS2255 (AABB, Triticum turgidum), SHW-L1 (AABBDD, synthetic hexaploid wheat) and Chuanmai 32 (AABBDD, Triticum aestivum), respectively. These sequences of SSI gene showed the higher conservative characterization between different materials. A total of 10 variable nucleotide bases and two substitutions of amino acid residues (Ser/Asn and Ala/Val) were observed in the cloning sequences. Alignment of all sequences, including SSI gene from T. aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon, Zea mays and Oryza sativa suggested that the sequences from Ae, tauschii, T. turgidum and synthetic hexaploid wheat, were more similar to SSI gene from common wheat and barley and far distance with sequences from Brachypodium distachyon, Zea mays and Oryza sativa. Using neighbor-joining method, phylogenetic tree including a total of 28 sequences could be clustered into four groups. Most of sequences of SSI from different species were clustered together and SSI gene showed the clear difference with other starch synthases, including Granule-bound Starch Synthase (GBSS), SSII, SSIII and SSIV. These results suggested that there was variation fro SSI gene in Triticum L. and Aegilops. It necessary to developing molecular markers for exploit genetic resources and the improving of wheat starch quality.
  Ya-Xi Liu , Wei Li , Yu-Ming Wei , Guo-Yue Chen and You-Liang Zheng
  This study characterizes 15 waxy genes from 15 accessions of the einkorn wheats Triticum urartu, T. boeoticum and T. monococcum. The mature protein coding sequences of waxy genes were analyzed. Nucleotide sequence variations in these regions resulted from base substitution and/or indel mutations. This work identified 8 distinct haplotypes from the diploid wheat waxy gene sequences. A main haplotype was found in 7 gene samples from the Au genome and Am genome. The waxy gene sequences from the Au and Am genomes could be obviously clustered into two clades, but the sequences from the Am genome of T. boeoticum and T. monococcum could not be clearly distinguished. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the waxy gene sequences from the Am genome had accumulated fewer variations and evolved at a slower rate than the sequences from the Au genome. These results would contribute to the understanding of functional aspects and efficient utilization of waxy genes.
  Qing Chen , Pengfei Qi , Renlin Xu , James T. Tambong , Zeinab R. Djama and Wei Li
  Pseudomonads are of significant environmental importance as the members including plant and animal/human pathogens, xenobiotic degraders, plant growth promoters and biocontrol agents. Three typing methods were evaluated, utilising 143 strains of fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from maize-oat-alfalfa-alfalfa rotation plots in Canada, to assess their usefulness as tools to study the microbial community diversity. The methods used were repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) utilising BOX and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) primers, another new PCR method using an engineered polymerase and 10-nucleotide “miniprimers” expands the scope of detectable sequences beyond those detected by standard methods using longer primers and Taq polymerase. Cluster analysis of the results clearly demonstrated the groups can be divided into two big clusters in line with the morphological variation. Rep-PCR proved to be highly discriminatory, interesting tools for the delineation or genotyping of bacterial species. We concluded that a combination of Box-, Eric- and Miniprimer-PCR results is a rapid and reliable alternative for discrimination among P. fluorescens isolates, contributing to epidemiological studies.
  Wei Li , Yu-Ming Wei , Ze-Hong Yan and You-Liang Zheng
  The grain protein contents of 84 Triticum turgidum ssp. turgidum landraces from Southwest China, including Sichuan, Shanxi, Gansu, Henan and Jiangsu provinces, were investigated. Higher variability for protein contents was observed. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was found that the genotype and year had significantly effects on the protein content. The negative significant correlation between grain protein content and 1000-grains weight was detected. Significant differences of the protein contents within the groups of landraces from Gansu, Sichuan and Henan were observed, whereas no significant differences within the group of landraces from Shanxi. However, there was no significant difference between the groups of landraces from Gansu, Sichuan, Henan and Shanxi. Cluster analysis indicated that the landraces from different province could not be distinguished. According to protein content, the landraces could be divided into 6 groups. These results could be useful for the genetic resources conservation and the improvement of wheat quality.
  Wei Li , An-Jun Liu , Yu-Zhen Sheng , Guo-Yue Cheng , Zi-En Pu , Ya-Xi Liu and Li Kong
  In order to exploit new genetic resources for the improving of starch quality of common wheat, the genetic diversity of null alleles of Granule-bound starch synthase I (waxy gene) was investigated by special PCR molecular markers in Triticum L. The results indicated that there was relative abundant genetic diversity of waxy alleles in all accessions. Accession AS2347, AS2356, AS2317 and AS2308 with null allele at Waxy-B1 locus and AS2310 and AS2335 with null alleles at Waxy-A1 and Waxy-B1, were observed in 81 landraces of Triticum turdigum L. from China. In 53 landraces of Triticum aestivum L. from Sichuan, China, eight accessions at Waxy-A1, Waxy-B1 and Waxy-D1 loci and accession AS1668 at Waxy-D1, were observed null alleles. In 29 Triticum macha, Accession PI361862 and PI572911 at three Waxy loci, PI572913 at Waxy-B1 and Waxy-D1, PI572910 at Waxy-A1 and Waxy-D1, PI 290507 at Waxy-B1 and PI572906 at Waxy-D1, respectively, were observed null alleles. Seven accessions with null alleles at Waxy-B1 locus was observed in 28 Triticum sphaerococcum. Specially, the accessions of two regions, Anyue in Sichuan, China and Georgia, had the high frequency of the mutations with null alleles of waxy gene. Landraces of Triticum aestivum L. with the high frequency of waxy wheat, could be considered as a unique genetic resource for improving of waxy wheat. These result suggested that the special molecular marker could be used reliably in evaluation of genetic resources and these mutations also could be directly used in the improving of common wheat.
  Chethan K. Acharya , Wei Li , Zhufang Liu , Gihan Kwon , C. Heath Turner , Alan M. Lane , David Nikles , Tonya Klein and Mark Weaver
 

Carbon supported catalysts can lose their activity over a period of time due to the sintering of the nanometer-sized catalyst particles. The sintering of metal clusters on carbon supports can occur due to the weak interaction between the metal and the support and also due to the corrosion of carbon, especially in fuel cell electrocatalysts. The sintering may be reduced by increasing the interaction between the metal and the support and also by increasing the corrosion resistance of carbon supports. In an effort to mitigate the growth of the nanoparticles, carbon-substituted boron defects were introduced in the carbon lattice. The interaction between the Pt nanoparticles on the pure and boron-doped carbon supports was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the interaction between the Pt nanoparticles and the boron-doped carbon support was slightly stronger than the interaction between the Pt nanoparticles and the pure carbon support. Also, by using accelerated aging tests, the boron-doped system was found to be more resistant to carbon corrosion when compared to the pristine carbon-supported Pt catalyst.

  Guiqing Peng , Yan Yan , Chengliang Zhu , Shiqun Wang , Xiaohong Yan , Lili Lu , Wei Li , Jing Hu , Wei Wei , Yongxin Mu , Yanni Chen , Yong Feng , Rui Gong , Kailang Wu , Fengmin Zhang , Xiaolian Zhang , Ying Zhu and Jianguo Wu
  Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the infectious agents that causes diseases of the central nervous system in a wide range of vertebrate species and, perhaps, in humans. The phosphoprotein (P) of BDV, an essential cofactor of virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is required for virus replication. In this study, we identified the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) with functions in neurobiology as one of the viral P protein-interacting cellular factors by using an approach of phage display-based protein-protein interaction analysis. Direct binding between GABARAP and P protein was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, protein pull-down, and mammalian two-hybrid analyses. GABARAP originally was identified as a linker between the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) and the microtubule to regulate receptor trafficking and plays important roles in the regulation of the inhibitory neural transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We showed that GABARAP colocalizes with P protein in the cells infected with BDV or transfected with the P gene, which resulted in shifting the localization of GABARAP from the cytosol to the nucleus. We further demonstrated that P protein blocks the trafficking of GABAR, a principal GABA-gated ion channel that plays important roles in neural transmission, to the surface of cells infected with BDV or transfected with the P gene. We proposed that during BDV infection, P protein binds to GABARAP, shifts the distribution of GABARAP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and disrupts the trafficking of GABARs to the cell membranes, which may result in the inhibition of GABA-induced currents and in the enhancement of hyperactivity and anxiety.
  Chieh-Fang Cheng , Jianhua Fan , Mark Fedesco , Shengxi Guan , Yong Li , Balaji Bandyopadhyay , Alexandra M. Bright , Dalia Yerushalmi , Mengmeng Liang , Mei Chen , Yuan-Ping Han , David T. Woodley and Wei Li
  Jump-starting and subsequently maintaining epidermal and dermal cell migration are essential processes for skin wound healing. These events are often disrupted in nonhealing wounds, causing patient morbidity and even fatality. Currently available treatments are unsatisfactory. To identify novel wound-healing targets, we investigated secreted molecules from transforming growth factor α (TGFα)-stimulated human keratinoytes, which contained strong motogenic, but not mitogenic, activity. Protein purification allowed us to identify the heat shock protein 90α (hsp90α) as the factor fully responsible for the motogenic activity in keratinocyte secretion. TGFα causes rapid membrane translocation and subsequent secretion of hsp90α via the unconventional exosome pathway in the cells. Secreted hsp90α promotes both epidermal and dermal cell migration through the surface receptor LRP-1 (LDL receptor-related protein 1)/CD91. The promotility activity resides in the middle domain plus the charged sequence of hsp90α but is independent of the ATPase activity. Neutralizing the extracellular function of hsp90α blocks TGFα-induced keratinicyte migration. Most intriguingly, unlike the effects of canonical growth factors, the hsp90α signaling overrides the inhibition of TGFβ, an abundant inhibitor of dermal cell migration in skin wounds. This finding provides a long-sought answer to the question of how dermal cells migrate into the wound environment to build new connective tissues and blood vessels. Thus, secreted hsp90α is potentially a new agent for wound healing.
  Huai-Gu Chen , Qi-Guang Cao , Gui-Lin Xiong , Wei Li , Ai-Xiang Zhang , Han- Shou Yu and Jin-Sheng Wang
  To assess the effect of rice straw mulching on changes of antagonistic bacteria and the incidence of wheat sharp eyespot, a multi-year field study was performed to compare unmulched plots and the plots mulched with rice straw for two or three years. Bacterial and fungal populations were evaluated in the cultures prepared from the wheat rhizosphere and bulk soils. Rice straw mulching increased the number of pseudomonas colony forming units in wheat rhizosphere and bulk soils. The proportion of total bacteria that were fluorescent pseudomonads was higher in mulched than in unmulched soil. Bacterial isolates antagonistic to Rhizoctonia cerealis were identified using an inhibition zone test. A series of these isolates were typed by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pseudomonads had higher antagonistic activity against R. cerealis than other species, and more than 80% of rhizosphere fluorescent pseudomonads were antagonistic to R. cerealis. The disease indices were lower in the mulched plots than in the unmulched control. These results suggest that rice straw mulching in a rice-wheat rotation increases the number of fluorescent pseudomonads. Additionally, these fluorescent pseudomonads may contribute to the control of wheat sharp eyespot.
  Wei Li , Ya-Hu Gao , Min Chang , Ya-Li Peng , Jia Yao , Ren-Wen Han and Rui Wang
  Neuropeptide S (NPS), a recently identified bioactive peptide, was reported to regulate arousal, anxiety, motoring and feeding behaviors. NPS precursor and NPS receptor mRNA were found in the amygdala, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra, the area thought to modulate rewarding properties of drugs. In the present study, we examined the influence of NPS on the rewarding action of morphine, using the unbiased conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Morphine (1, 3 and 6nmol, i.c.v.) induced a significant place preference. For testing the effect of NPS on the acquisition of morphine CPP, mice were given the combination of NPS and morphine on the conditioning days, and without drug treatment on the followed test day. To study the effect of NPS on the expression of morphine CPP, mice received the treatment of saline/morphine on the conditioning days, and NPS on the test day, 15min before the placement in the CPP apparatus. Our results showed that NPS (0.3–10nmol) alone neither induced place preference nor aversion, however, NPS (1 and 3nmol) blocked the acquisition of CPP induced by 3nmol morphine, and acquisition of 6nmol morphine-induced CPP was also reduced by NPS (6 and 10nmol). Moreover, the expression of CPP induced by 6nmol morphine was also inhibited by NPS (0.1, 1 and 10nmol). These results revealed the involvement of NPS in rewarding activities of morphine, and demonstrated the interaction between NPS system and opioid system for the first time.
  Ren-Wen Han , Min Chang , Ya-Li Peng , Lian-yong Qiao , Xin-Qiang Yin , Wei Li and Rui Wang
 

Neuropeptide S (NPS), the endogenous ligand of NPS receptor (NPSR), regulates many biological functions, including arousal, anxiety, locomotion and food intake. NPSR mRNA is expressed in several regions of central autonomic network through which the brain controls visceromotor and other responses essential for survival. However, the role of NPS/NPSR system in regulating gastrointestinal motor is still unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NPS on distal colonic transit in mice. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPS (1–1000 pmol) inhibited fecal pellet output and bead expulsion in a dose-dependent manner. However, intraperitoneal injection of NPS (1000 and 10 000 pmol) did not affect fecal pellet output and bead expulsion. In vitro, NPS (0.1–10 μM) also did not modulate distal colonic contractions. Furthermore, i.c.v. co-administration of [D-Val5]NPS, a pure and potent NPSR antagonist, dose-dependently antagonized the inhibitory effects of NPS on fecal pellet output and bead expulsion. In conclusion, our results firstly indicate that central NPS inhibits distal colonic transit through the activation of central NPSR, which implicate that NPS/NPSR system might be a new target to treat function disorder of distal colon.

  Chun-Jiang Zhang , Wei Li , Hong-Yu Li , Yu-Ling Wang , Tian Yun , Zheng-Peng Song , Yan Song and Xing-Wen Zhao
  Extracts from five Tibetan medicinal plants collected from the Tibetan Plateau were evaluated for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro and in vivo. Viral plaque reduction assays showed that extracts from four out of five plants inhibited HSV-2 infection significantly with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) values ranging from 0.35 ± 0.11 to 1.83 ± 0.21 mg/mL. The other plant, Swertia mussotii Franch. (Gentianaceae), exhibited activity in inhibiting the viral biosynthesis. In the attachment assay, two plants, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. (Lamiaceae) and Dracocephalum tanguticum Maxim. (Lamiaceae) reduced the attachment of HSV-2 to cell surface. Interestingly, all of the extracts showed virucidal activity. Analyzed by real-time PCR, three extracts showed strong inhibition of HSV DNA replication with Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Dracocephalum tanguticum at the concentration of 4 mg/mL and Lagotis brevituba Maxim. (Scrophulariaceae) at 1 mg/mL. BALB/c mice were used for determining in vivo efficacy. Mice encephalitis herpes models were established by infection with HSV-2. The extracts of Dracocephalum heterophyllum, Dracocephalum tanguticum, and Swertia mussotii at a dose of 1 g/kg per day significantly prolonged the mean survival times and reduced the mortality of HSV-2 infected mice compared with control group (P < 0.05). Taken together, we conclude that the antiviral mechanisms of these plants involve various stages of virus replication. Extracts from three of these plants, Dracocephalum heterophyllum, Dracocephalum tanguticum, and Swertia mussotii, may be possible candidates in developing anti-HSV-2 medicine.
  Wei- Hua Shen , Zhuang Chen , Shu Shi , Hanying Chen , Wuqiang Zhu , Anne Penner , Guixue Bu , Wei Li , David W. Boyle , Michael Rubart , Loren J. Field , Robert Abraham , Edward A. Liechty and Weinian Shou
  Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator for cell growth through modulating components of the translation machinery. Previously, numerous pharmacological studies using rapamycin suggested that mTOR has an important role in regulating cardiac hypertrophic growth. To further investigate this assumption, we have generated two lines of cardiac specific mTOR transgenic mice, kinase-dead (kd) mTOR and constitutively active (ca) mTOR, using α-myosin heavy chain promoter. α-Myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-mTORkd mice had a near complete inhibition of p70 S6k and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, whereas αMHC-mTORca had a significant increase in p70 S6k and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Although the cardiac function of αMHC-mTORkd mice was significantly altered, the cardiac morphology of these transgenic mice was normal. The cardiac hypertrophic growth in response to physiological and pathological stimuli was not different in αMHC-mTORkd and αMHC-mTORca transgenic mice when compared with that of nontransgenic littermates. These findings suggest that the mTOR-mediated signaling pathway is not essential to cardiac hypertrophic growth but is involved in regulating cardiac function. Additional analysis of cardiac responses to fasting-refeeding or acute insulin administration indicated that αMHC-mTORkd mice had a largely impaired physiological response to nutrient energy supply and insulin stimulation.
  David T. Woodley , Yingping Hou , Sabrina Martin , Wei Li and Mei Chen
  Type VII collagen (C7) is a major component of anchoring fibrils, structures that mediate epidermal-dermal adherence. Mutations in gene COL7A1 encoding for C7 cause dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB), a genetic mechano-bullous disease. The biological consequences of specific COL7A1 mutations and the molecular mechanisms leading to DEB clinical phenotypes are unknown. In an attempt to establish genotype-phenotype relationships, we generated four individual substitution mutations that have been associated with recessive DEB, G2049E, R2063W, G2569R, and G2575R, and purified the recombinant mutant proteins. All mutant proteins were synthesized and secreted as a 290-kDa mutant C7 α chain at levels similar to wild type C7. The G2569R and G2575R glycine substitution mutations resulted in mutant C7 with increased sensitivity to protease degradation and decreased ability to form trimers. Limited proteolytic digestion of mutant G2049E and R2063W proteins yielded aberrant fragments and a triple helix with reduced stability. These two mutations next to the 39-amino acid helical interruption hinge region caused local destabilization of the triple-helix that exposed an additional highly sensitive proteolytic site within the region of the mutation. Our functional studies demonstrated that C7 is a potent pro-motility matrix for skin human keratinocyte migration and that this activity resides within the triple helical domain. Furthermore, G2049E and R2063W mutations reduced the ability of C7 to support fibroblast adhesion and keratinocyte migration. We conclude that known recessive DEB C7 mutations perturb critical functions of the C7 molecule and likely contribute to the clinical phenotypes of DEB patients.
  Wei Li and James A. Huntington
  Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a member of the serpin family of protease inhibitors with many biological functions and broad inhibitory specificity. Its major targets in blood are thrombin and activated protein C (APC), and the inhibition of both enzymes can be accelerated by glycosaminoglycans, including heparin. Acceleration of thrombin and APC inhibition by PCI requires that both protease and inhibitor bind to the same heparin chain to form a bridged Michaelis complex. However, the position of the heparin binding site of APC is opposite to that of thrombin, and formation of the bridged complexes must require either radical reorientation of the proteases relative to PCI or alternate heparin binding modes for PCI. In this study, we investigate how heparin bridges thrombin and APC to PCI by determining the effect of mutations in and around the putative heparin binding site of PCI. We found that heparin binds PCI in a linear fashion along helix H to bridge thrombin, consistent with our recent crystal structure (3B9F), but that it must rotate by ~60° to engage Arg-229 to bridge APC. To gain insight into the possible modes of heparin binding to PCI, we solved a crystal structure of cleaved PCI bound to an octasaccharide heparin fragment to 1.55 Å resolution. The structure reveals a binding mode across the N terminus of helix H to engage Arg-229 and align the heparin binding site of APC. A molecular model for the heparin-bridged PCI·APC complex was built based on mutagenesis and structural data.
  WEI Li , RU Bing-hua , ZHOU Ying-ying , SHAO Wei-wei , ZHANG Li-biao , HONG Tiyu , ZHOU Shan-yi and MA Jie
  Postnatal developments of morphological features (forearm and body mass) and vocalization (call frequencies and durations) of Rhinolophus pusillus were studied in the Jishui Cave of Guilin City from May 31st to July 20th 2006. The morphological changes indicated that infants of R. pusillus grew significantly in the postnatal three weeks and then gradually slowed down. Both forearm length and body weight were significantly correlated with the growing of age. Durations of infants’ calls were fairly variable and longer than those of adults. No significant correlation was found between the duration and age. Spectral characteristics indicated that the calls produced by infants had rather variable spectrums, unstable frequencies, and multiple harmonics in the first 20 days after birth. Infants over three weeks old mostly emitted FM-CF-FM type calls. Frequencies of first harmonics were significantly correlated with their age but the second harmonics did not correlate with age. The call frequencies of the young five-week-old bats were similar with their adults. The call frequency had a significant linear correlation with forearm length. Our findings indicated that the high flexible vocal cord and undeveloped nasal chamber might affect the vocalization veracity of new born infants.
  WANG Xu-Zhong , HU Kai-Liang , WEI Li , XU Dong and ZHANG Li-Biao
  We used the pendulum device to study Doppler-shifted compensation ofgreat leaf-nosed bat(Hipposideros armiger). The bats’ echolocation calls were recorded by the Ultrasound Detector both under the rest condition and Doppler shift condition. Then we analyzed the calls with Avisoft software. Our results suggested that when H. armiger was approaching the target, it showed positive Doppler shift compensation: call frequency and the velocity (v) were positive correlated. Call frequency fell to minimum when the bats’ relative velocity reached to maximum; likewise call frequency raised to the resting condition frequency when the relative velocity became zero. Negative Doppler shift compensation occurred when bats were far away from the target. Under negative Doppler shift compensation condition, we found call frequency and velocity were positive correlated as well, and moreover, call frequency raised to maximum again while the bats had their minus direction’s maximal relative velocity. However, under this status, the elevated value was much lower than the depressed value under positive compensation at the same velocity. The frequency of occurrence of negative compensation was obviously less frequent than that under positive compensation condition. Therefore, we inferred that the two characteristics of the negative Doppler shift compensation mentioned above may be the coactions consequence of the bio-structural restriction and natural selection.
  WEI Li , LIN Zhi-Hua , MA Xiao-Mei , ZHAO Li-Hua and MA Xiao-Hao
  We recorded and described the calls and acoustic characteristics of the male tiger frog, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, in an artificial pond during mating season. Spectral and temporal call parameters, along with call intensity were analyzed. Three harmonics were distinguishable from the spectrogram. Four patterns of dominant frequency were found in calls produced late at night, i.e, 3 patterns in the first harmonic (located in 500 Hz section, 700 Hz section, and 800 Hz section respectively) and 1 in the second harmonic (located in 1 800 Hz section). Call duration, call duty cycle, call intensity, and pulse rate were highly variable among different patterns of dominant frequency. These call properties could provide valuable evidence for further ecological study of this species.
 
 
 
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