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Articles by E.T.S. Putra
Total Records ( 4 ) for E.T.S. Putra
  E.T.S. Putra , W. Zakaria , N.A.P. Abdullah and G.B. Saleh
  A field experiment was conducted to determine the influence of magnesium (Mg), boron (B) and silicon (Si) availabilities on stomatal morphology, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of Rastali. The experiment was done at Universiti Putra Malaysia under field condition arranged in split-split plot design with four blocks. The main factor was NPK fertilizer recommended by Department of Agriculture Malaysia (DOA) and United Plantation Berhad (UPB). The sub-factors were applications and non-application (as control) of kieserite (Mg), boric acid (B) and sodium silicate (Si). The sub-sub factors were the four Rastali accessions, namely, R08, R62, R34 and R12. In particular, the Berangan accession was selected as the control treatment. The observations were carried out on the stomatal morphology, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Data were analyzed with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 5% level and continued with the Least Significant Differences (LSD) if significant. The relationship patterns among the parameters were determined using regression analysis. The findings showed that high-dose applications of NPK fertilizer enhanced stomatal length and width (abaxial and adaxial), stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, with or without Mg, B and Si. Similarly, in low doses, NPK fertilizers added with Mg, B and Si significantly enhanced stomatal length and width, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. On the contrary, stomatal density (abaxial and adaxial) and ratio were not influenced by NPK fertilizer, Mg-B-Si or their combinations. Moreover, stomatal density and ratio were found to be different among the cultivars (Berangan and Rastali), but similar within the Rastali accessions. In particular, Berangan had a high stomatal density (abaxial and adaxial) compared Rastali, so stomatal ratio became smaller. There were linear relationships between stomatal width, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, whereby wider stomata were shown to have resulted in higher conductance and transpiration rate.
  E.T.S. Putra , W. Zakaria , N.A.P. Abdullah and G. Saleh
  A study was carried out to determine the cause of weak neck in Musa sp. by observing the cell structure and peel nutrient content. Two cultivars with weak neck problem were compared to four cultivars without weak neck problem. For this study, cultivars Rastali and Awak were identified as cultivars which have weak neck problem whereas cultivars Lemak Manis, Abu, Berangan and Tanduk were without weak neck problem. Fruits with the same level of maturation were obtained from the local market. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the cellular structures. Ten elements N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and B were analyzed from the peel. Cell Width (CW), cell Wall Thickness (WT) and CW/WT ratio were determined. Cells of Rastali were found to collapse completely after ripening while cells of Awak became thinner, making these two cultivars prone to weak neck. The cells of the other four cultivars became elongated and cell wall became thicker after ripening, thus not showing weak neck symptom. Concentrations of all the 10 elements in the six Musa sp. cultivars were found to be above the critical levels. It was concluded that weak neck in cultivars Rastali and Awak was caused by disintegration, collapse and thinning out of cells along the neck region and not due to nutritional deprivation. Calcium deficiency was not the cause of weak neck in these Musa sp. cultivars.
  E.T.S. Putra , W. Zakaria , N.A.P. Abdullah and G. Saleh
  Weak neck is the physiological weakening at the pedicel of Musa sp. fruit that causes individual fruits to be released prematurely from the hand. The level of resistance to weak neck is different among groups of Musa sp. with A and B genomes, diploid, triploid and tetraploid. Musa sp. cv. Rastali is AAB genome, but this cultivar is sensitive to weak neck. Sensitivity to weak neck comes from the two A genomes. There is high probability that application of Magnesium (Mg), Boron (B) and Silicon (Si) may solve weak neck on Musa sp. cv. Rastali. Magnesium application increases chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis rate. Assimilate accumulation on fruit cells triggers cell elongation and cell wall thickening, especially in the neck zone. Boron plays an important role in regulating hormone and enzyme levels in plants. Sufficient boron in plant tissue impedes synthesis and activities of Pectate Lyase (PL) and pectinmethylesterase (PME), thus decreasing cell wall hydrolysis. Plant cells and tissues become stronger with Si application. This is caused by the formation of silica-cuticle double layer on the epidermis. Low temperature along with low relative humidity during storage and ripening decreases the activities of PL and PME. The reduction of PL and PME activities result in a decrease in pectin degradation rate and cell wall hydrolysis, thus reducing the occurrence of weak neck.
  E.T.S. Putra , Issukindarsyah , Taryono and B.H. Purwanto
  The objectives of the study were to determine (1) The level of physiological resistance of oil palm seedlings to drought stress by boron (B) and silicon (Si) application and (2) The mechanism of B and Si actions to induce physiological resistance of oil palm seedlings to drought stress. The B and Si were the elements capably inducing the internal resistance of plant tissues to drought stress, especially through physiological resistance mechanisms. Field trial was arranged in the factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) using three blocks as replications. The first factor was six dose of B: 0.00, 0.17, 0.44, 0.87 and 1.31 g plant-1. The second factor was five dose of Si: 0.00, 1.15, 2.31, 3.46 and 4.69 g plant-1. Observations were done on the Nitrate Reductase Activity (NRA), the content of chlorophyll a, b and total, density, length and width of stomatal aperture, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic activity per plant, dry weight of plant parts and trunk height and diameter of the oil palm seedlings. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and the means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test at 5% level. Meanwhile, the optimum dose of B and Si were determined using regression analysis. The results showed that B and Si application could induce physiological resistance of oil palm seedlings to drought stress. Mechanism of action of B in inducing physiological resistance of oil palm seedlings to drought stress were by increasing of greenish leaves, width of stomatal aperture and photosynthetic activity per plant while Si application capable to increase of greenish leaves and to decrease the density of lower leaf surface stomatal. The optimal dose of B was 0.33-0.57 g/seedlings and the optimal dose of Si was 2.22 g/seedling in inducing physiological resistance of oil palm seedlings to drought stress.
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