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Articles by Kuldeep Dhama
Total Records ( 36 ) for Kuldeep Dhama
  Amit Kumar Verma , Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar , Ruchi Tiwari , Anu Rahal , Mahima and Shoor Vir Singh
  Since, last several years, efforts are going on to eradicate or eliminate a number of infectious diseases of animals, with mixed success. Basically for eradicating, eliminating or controlling any infectious disease isolation and quarantine of sick animals as well as animals suspected for disease; strengthening disease monitoring and surveillance, effective vaccines and vaccination strategies along with other control measures including of treatment are of utmost importance. Most importantly a significant knowledge is required for countering infectious diseases and assessing the criteria for selection of disease to be eradicated next. The role of environmental factors in the process of disease dynamics need to be understood which further plays a contributory role in the process of combating and elimination of diseases. Despite continuous efforts against animal diseases like Rinderpest, Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Foot-and-mouth disease, Rinderpest (cattle plague) is the only one that is successfully eradicated till date in India. However, control programmes on CBPP also brought a significant reduction in the incidence of the disease but eradication status is yet to be declared. While the other disease control programmes viz., Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMDCP), National Control Programme on Brucellosis (NCPB), National Control Programme of Peste des Petits Ruminants (NCPPPR) and Avian Influenza: Preparedness, Control and Containment could not achieve the desired success. Nowadays, with the achievement of the global eradication status on rinderpest there is again a renewed interest in disease eradication and control of infectious diseases of animals and alleviating their public health concerns. The focus is also being given in the 12th five year plan of the country on monitoring and control of certain animal diseases of economic importance. In view of above facts, this is right time to discuss the strategies for combating and eradicating important infectious diseases of animals with particular reference to India, achievements of global rinderpest eradication programme and reasons thereof and possibly apply lessons while planning for the future activities. This article describes various prevention and control strategies for controlling the infectious diseases of animals that have been or should be targeted for eradication or elimination, direct and indirect benefits from control programmes, issues and opportunities for the future.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty and Sanjay Kapoor
  As promising antibacterials, endolysins own several pertinent features viz., diverse novel mode of action, antibacterial spectrum, low probability of developing resistance and being highly active with explicit specificity against host bacteria. Bacteriophage endolysins are mureolytic enzymes which facilitate direct targeting of peptidoglycan bonds in the bacterial cell wall. Encoded by the bacteriophage genome they are synthesized at the end of the phage lytic life cycle, headed for lysing host cell and releasing newly produced virions. In addition to this “lysis from within”, endolysins from phages of gram-positive hosts are also able to swiftly lyse bacteria upon exogenous application. Lysozyme as well as endopeptidase like lysostaphine have been recommended in neonatal streptococcal and staphylococcal infection, respectively. Literature reveals strong potential of phage enzymes in human health care and veterinary medicine for control of pathogens and treatment of diverse systemic infections. They have wide applications in pathogen detection and development of diagnostics, as a means of biodefence, eliminating food pathogens and in control of phytopathogens. The defensins and cathelicidins can be exploited as enzybiotics among other families of antimicrobial peptide gene. In innate immunity such antibiotic peptides that are endogenous in nature play crucial role and forms first line of defense for protecting internal as well as external body surfaces of the host. The important portals of enzybiotics (EnzyBase and phiBIOTICS) are playing crucial role for disseminating the state of knowledge of enzybiotics. The present review discusses the widespread potential of various bacteriophage lysins/enzybiotics in the perspective of future antibacterial drug development.
  Thadiyam Puram Ramees , Ramswaroop Singh Rathore , Prashanth Suresh Bagalkot , Hosakote Venkatappa Mohan , Ashok Kumar and Kuldeep Dhama
  In recent years, the frequency of isolation and detection of Arcobacter organisms from animals and humans with enteritis and food samples, highlights the importance of arcobacters worldwide as emerging food-borne pathogens. Reports are very scanty regarding prevalence of arcobacters from India. Therefore, the present study aimed to know the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. (Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus) in humans and foods of animal origin by employing cultural and multiplex PCR (mPCR) methods. A total number of 353 samples were collected from human hospitals, retail meat shops and milk suppliers [human stools (102), chicken meat (151), milk (100)] from in and around Bareilly region, Uttar Pradesh, India. By cultural method the overall prevalence rate of Arcobacter spp. was found to be 10.20% (36/353) while it was 18.13% (64/353) with mPCR which revealed mPCR to be a more efficient technique in detecting arcobacters. The highest prevalence rate was observed in chicken meat, followed by human stool and milk samples with A. butzleri having more prevalence. For simultaneous detection and differentiation of arcobacters at species level the cultural methods possess limitations while mPCR gave rapid and confirmatory detection of A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus species. The results of the study add to the epidemiological data available for arcobacters. Extensive epidemiological studies employing the utility of mPCR are suggested for knowing the magnitude of Arcobacter infection animals, humans and various food sources in the country. This would help in designing appropriate prevention and control strategies for this important pathogen having public health concerns.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Neha , Mani Saminathan , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease transmitted from animals to human and makes significant economic impacts due to high cost of eradication programs, trade restriction and serious consequences regarding public health thereby causing human tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis is the main etiological agent of bTB which is an acid fast staining bacterium due to waxy substance (mycolic acid) present in its bacterial cell wall. The bacteria can be transmitted by both aerogenous and enterogenous routes. Disease causes development of miliary tubercular lesions, chronic cough, obstructions of air passages and alimentary tract or blood vessels and enlargement of lymph nodes. A spectrum of Cell-Mediated Immune responses (CMI) predominate infection, projecting the role of macrophages and T-cell populations. In advanced stage, there is increased humoral response. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) have been widely used for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex in clinical samples. Single intradermal test, short thermal test and Stormont tests are the valuable delayed type of hypersensitivity tests. Gamma interferon assay, lymphocyte proliferation assay, Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA), multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), Fluorescent Polarization Assay (FPA), immunochromatographic lateral flow test, single antigen as well as multiplex chemiluminescence assays are the various blood-based laboratory tests. Attenuated bovine-strain of tuberculosis bacterium, known as Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) is used as vaccine. The present review addresses important insights into the bovine TB, a complex and multi-species disease, the etiological agent, advances and trends in its diagnosis, vaccine development and treatment options and the public health significance of this important disease which would altogether help devising effective strategies for prevention and control of tuberculosis in cattle as well as in wildlife.
  Sukantu Hajra , Shoor Vir Singh , Ashok Kumar Srivastava , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  The present study was aimed to diagnose early cases of paratuberculosis in goats by demonstration of Acid Fast Bacteria (AFB) in faecal and tissue samples; isolation of organisms from faecal and tissue samples, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and patho-morphological lesions in experimental infection using “Indian Bison Type” biotype strain S-5 of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Faecal samples from 142 goats from various farm herds of North India were subjected to smear (using centrifugation and decontamination) and cultural examinations. Isolation of MAP was performed in all faecal and 74 tissue samples by inoculation on Herrold’s Egg Yolk (HEY) medium with or without Mycobactin-J after decontamination with 0.9% Hexadecylpyridinium Chloride (HPC). Experimental study was conducted on 13 young goats (10 infected, 3 controls) where pathogenicity of the strain S-5 was tested by gross and histopathological lesions and plate-ELISA test. Characteristic gross and microscopic lesions were observed at 90 Days Post Infection (DPI) and onwards. Lesions showing infiltration of macrophages with AFB without granuloma formation, simulating lepromatous form of human leprosy and typical granuloma as in tuberculoid form were observed. Positive humoral immune response was observed at 90 DPI onwards showing antibody titer above the cut off value. There was apparent linear correlation between the antibody levels and days post infection. Performance of different diagnostic tests like examination of faecal smear by direct microscopy, faecal culture, scraping smear examination for MAP from tissue, pathomorphology and plate ELISA test had linear relationship among them. Such study ultimately may help the researchers to select the specific series of tests for detection of MAP from clinical samples.
  Hosakote Venkatappa Mohan , Ramswaroop Singh Rathore , Kuldeep Dhama , Thadiyam Puram Ramees , Anil Patya , Prashanth Suresh Bagalko , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Kiran Narayan Bhilegaonkar and Ashok Kumar
  Arcobacter is an important emerging food and water borne pathogen having worldwide public health concern. The present study reports the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in humans, animals and foods of animal origin based on cultural isolation, antibiogram, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and multiplex PCR detection. A total of 400 samples were collected as human diarrheal stool (50), faecal swabs of poultry (50), pig (50), cattle (50) and foods of animal origin [Raw milk (60), chicken meat (60), beef (40) and pork (40)]. The overall prevalence rate of Arcobacter spp. was found to be 6.75% (27/400) by cultural isolation with highest prevalence in pig faeces (12%), followed by cattle faeces (10%), chicken meat (10%), poultry faeces (8%), beef (5%), pork (5%), human diarrheal stools (2%) and milk (1.67%). PCR screening revealed prevalence of Arcobacter spp. to be 7.75% (31/400) with highest in pig faeces (12%), followed by cattle faeces (12%), chicken meat (11.67%), poultry (10%), beef (7.5%), pork (5%), human stools (2.00%) and raw milk (1.67%). Multiplex PCR assay enabled detection of A. butzleri (21/27) and A. skirrowii (6/27). In vitro antibiotic sensitivity profile of 27 Arcobacter isolates revealed most of these to be sensitive to azithromycin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. Higher resistance was observed for cephalothin, novobiocin and vancomycin with notable intermediately resistance against erythromycin and chloramphenicol. The present study demonstrated high prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in pig, cattle and poultry faecal samples which may play important role in contamination of environment, water and human food chain, thus could be of public health concerns. The PCR was found to be more rapid, sensitive, specific and efficient than cultural methods for detection of Arcobacter spp.
  Rekha Khandia , Sandeep Bhatia , Kh. Victoria Chanu , Richa Sood and Kuldeep Dhama
  Anthrax is a zoonotic disease and its lethality is due to two secreted exotoxins; lethal toxin and edema toxin. The receptor for anthrax toxin is called Anthrax Toxin Receptor (ATR). Two distinct cellular Anthrax toxin receptors, ANTXR1 (also known as tumour endothelial marker 8, TEM8) and ANTXR2 (also known as capillary morphogenesis protein 2, CMG2) have been identified. TEM8 and CMG2 both are ubiquitous in nature. Apart from their function as anthrax toxin receptor, their ubiquitous presence is suggestive of their physiological role. TEM8 is preferentially expressed in blood vessel of tumours and in vasculature, indicating its probable role during angiogenesis and regulation of neovasculature. CMG2 is present in capillary cells and is associated with capillary morphogenesis. Both the TEM8 and CMG2 are present in different isoforms, share homology in amino acid residues and apart from their role in angiogenesis regulation, are also involved in interaction with extracellular matrix. Mutation in TEM8 result in a condition appeared to alter physical characters in form of growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia and progressive visual impairment known as GAPO syndrome. Mutation in CMG2 result in autosomal recessive disorder in humans called Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome (HFS) and Infantile Systemic Hyalinosis (ISH). Because of the role in physiological functions and participation as toxin receptor, these receptors could be target for several curative therapies both for the anthrax disease as well as for receptor associated physiological disorders. This review presents a detailed insight into isoforms, functions, diseases and therapeutic implications of anthrax toxin receptors.
  Mani Saminathan , Ram Bahal Rai , Kuldeep Dhama , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Amarpal , Gopikunte Jayaramaiah Ranganath and Kandasamy Kannan
  The miracle medicinal plant Morinda citrifolia L., also called as Noni, Great Morinda or Indian mulberry, belongs to the family Rubiaceae. Its fruit has been used traditionally for more than 2000 years by native Polynesians. However, all parts of the plant have medicinal properties. More than 160 phytochemicals have been isolated from the plant Noni which makes it an amazing herbal remedy for the treatment of numerous disorders including cancer. Recently, the Noni juice has been in high demand in market as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for its multi-dimensional health benefits. It is a potent antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihelminthic, anticancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hypotensive, cardiovascular protective, wound healer, anxiolytic, sedative, antigout, antiobesity and immune enhancing agent. Anticancerous activity of Morinda citrifolia is attributable to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis-inducing effects. Based on toxicological and mutagenicity assessment, Noni juice has been considered as safe. Few reports of hepatotoxicity exist, although there are many evidences suggesting hepatoprotective effects of Noni. Even though large number of in vitro studies has been carried out but only few clinical trials exist in the literature to suggest real beneficial effects of Noni in humans. Recently, Noni fruit juice has been accepted as a novel food element in the European Union. A number of scientific studies have been conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of phytoconstituents of Noni. In this review, active phytochemical constituents, pharmacological properties, mechanism of action and various immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of Noni usage as a useful herbal medicine are discussed in detail which could be very helpful in safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals. A special focus has been made on the potent utility of this wonderful herbal plant in preventing and treating the deadly malady of cancer.
  M. Yaqoob Wani , Tapas Kumar Goswami , Raies Ahmad Mir , Pallab Chaudhuri and Kuldeep Dhama
  Gram negative sepsis and septic shock are among the leading causes of death, both in humans and animals. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors are said to have immune modulating effects. In the present study, it was hypothesized that amelioration of hyper immune activation by pravastatin can improve the immunoapthological status of acute sepsis. Pasteurella multocida Pm52 strain was used as a source of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the pathogenic organism for induction of septicaemia in mice. In vitro trials showed that LPS extracted from P. multocida stimulated Nitric Oxide (NO) production in time and dose dependent manner in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast (MEF) cultures. Addition of pravastatin to MEF culture supernatant significantly reduced Pm52 LPS induced NO production (p<0.05). In vivo studies showed that administration of pravastatin in combination with cefotaxime to P. multocida induced septicaemic mice significantly increased both mean survival time and survivability percentage compared to antibiotic and pravastatin treatments regimes. Furthermore, the serum TNF-α : IL-10 levels were significantly improved and near to normal healthy ratios in septicaemic mice treated with pravastatin+cefotaxime combination at 24 h post infection. Gross and histopathological findings revealed moderate lesion in pravastatin treated mice as compared to untreated and cefotaxime alone treated groups. The findings conclude that pravastatin stabilizes the immune compromised status of the septicaemic animals during early septic stages by stabilising the NO production, regulating the TNF-α: IL-10 ratio and reducing histopathological lesions. Although the mortality was not prevented, the immunopathological signs were ameliorated to a greater extent by this new treatment combination, further investigations are suggested to explore its possible therapeutic utility against sepsis and for septicaemic patients.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Mani Saminathan , Amit Kumar , K. Karthik , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amarpal , Shoor Vir Singh and Anu Rahal
  Owing to rising incidences of antimicrobial resistance against various chemotherapeutic and antimicrobial agents, the treatment of bacterial infections requires special consideration that may otherwise lead to grave prognosis. Simultaneously, evolution of many a Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacterial strains have further aggravated the present situation. In this scenario, scrutinizing for some alternative yet effective antibacterial therapeutics like herbs, nutritional immunomodulators, bacteriophages, avian egge antibodies and others have become need of the day. Herbs have been a valuable source of medication in virtually all cultures and societies worldwide due to their important antimicrobial principles and phytoconstituents and wider therapeutic potentials. As various extracts of herbs and medicinal plants are being reported with antibacterial activities, much effort should be made in their identification, studying biologically active ingredients, efficacy and potency testing and scientific validation for their significant and practical multi-beneficial uses. The present review elaborates the potential role and applications of several herbs in treating bacterial infections and various types of bacterial diseases for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals. It highlights the salient beneficial applications of traditional herbs and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern usages. Due emphasis has been given regarding scientific approaches to be followed and future perspectives with a vision to counter the emerging antimicrobial resistance. The review will certainly promote and popularize herbs as alternatives to conventional antimicrobials, particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial infections. Global usages of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to various antimicrobials would lead not only to safeguard health issues and obtain optimum production from animals but will also ensure the public health issues including of food safety concerns viz., antibiotic residual effects in animal products (milk, meat) and zoonotic threats.
  Mani Saminathan , Ram Bahal Rai , Kuldeep Dhama , Babu Lal Jangir , Subramaniyam Suresh , Gopikunte Jayaramaiah Ranganath , Inbaraj Sophia , Kuppusamy Karuppanasamy , Singaram Barathiraja and Arumugam Gopalakrishnan
  N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (NMU) is a highly specific mammary gland carcinogen that act directly and does not require metabolic activation. The novel medicinal plant Morinda citrifolia, also called as Noni, has broad therapeutic effects such as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anticancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immune enhancing effects. The present study was conducted to assess the beneficial effects of M. citrifolia fruit juice on antioxidant, hematological and biochemical alterations caused by NMU induced mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into five groups viz., vehicle control group-A (n = 8), M. citrifolia control group-B (n = 8), NMU control group C (n = 15), M. citrifolia prevention group-D (n = 15) and M. citrifolia treatment group-E (n = 15). By the end of the 28 weeks experimental period all the animals were euthanized, blood was collected by heart puncture. M. citrifolia treatment significantly (p<0.05) increased the anti-oxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and significantly (p<0.05) decreased the lipid peroxidation activity when compared to NMU control group-C. M. citrifolia exhibited a preventive effect against anaemia, lymphocytosis and neutrophilia in group-D and group-E when compared to group-C. Biochemical analyses showed normal levels of enzymes of liver and kidney in M. citrifolia treated groups- B, D and E rats, whereas NMU control group-C showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in albumin and total protein levels. These findings indicate that M. citrifolia fruit juice did not show any hepatotoxic or nephrotoxic effects. It was concluded that the M. citrifolia fruit juice ameliorates the adverse effects of NMU carcinogenesis and could be useful to treat mammary tumours in humans and animals.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Ruchi Tiwari , Rifat Ullah Khan , Sandip Chakraborty , Marappan Gopi , Kumaragurubaran Karthik , Mani Saminathan , Perumal Arumugam Desingu and Lakshmi Tulasi Sunkara
  A substantial growth in poultry industry has been observed mainly due to exploitation of various modern growth promoting strategies and appropriate disease preventive and control measures. The present review describes the various essential growth promoters and novel feed supplements, their salient features, classical examples, bioactive principles, pharmacological and modes of action and useful applications for improving poultry production and health. It highlights antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, organic acids, vitamins and minerals, oils, enzymes, amino acids, betaine, carnitine, L-arginine, ractopamine, nucleotides, electrolytes, herbs, panchgavya elements. Apart from boosting poultry production and safeguarding general health of birds some of these have been found to possess beneficial immunomodulatory and stress relieving properties and also have added advantages to help produce lean meat and designer poultry products taking into account health awareness and preferences of the consumers. It is a comprehensive and an updated review compilation focusing the salient aspects of various important growth promoters and feed additives having potential applications to promote poultry production and health. Due care has been taken to cover the ongoing trends and recent advances with a perspective vision and their holistic usages and beneficial applications in poultry production system. The contents of the review will be highly useful for researchers, scientists, pharmacists, veterinary professionals, pharmaceutical industries, poultry producers/owners and poultry industry as well as for perspective applications in livestock industry. It would enrich the knowledge of researchers and help the scientific community to conduct more research on such daily essential requirements for boosting poultry production in a better way. It will also shed light regarding the management and production aspects of poultry especially broilers which will enlighten farmers and poultry producers for better economic growth.
  Rifat Ullah Khan , Shabana Naz and Kuldeep Dhama
  Heat stress has been associated with depressed growth in meat-type birds and a decline in egg production and quality in laying hens. During heat stress, feed intake tends to decrease, thus the availability of certain important minerals is reduced. Chromium (Cr) is one such mineral which is required for maintaining growth performance in poultry due to its role in growth, metabolism and alleviation of lipid peroxidation. The available scientific literature on Cr has documented the beneficial effects of this essential mineral in improving poultry performance under conditions of environmental heat stress. In the present study, past and present information about the specific role of Cr in heat-stressed poultry is presented.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Rajib Deb and Kuldeep Dhama
  Earth is rich in variety of plant species including the beneficial one having some medicinal properties. The use of herbal medicines for the treatment of various diseases like hepatitis, arthritis, chronic heart diseases, skin disorders, wounds and even cancer have been mentioned in our ‘ayurveda’ and proved scientifically by many researchers of modern times. Now-a-days, fruits and vegetables are gaining popularity in medicine for treating mastitis, foot-and-mouth disease, skin allergies, hypersensitivity reaction, tympany, food poisoning, retention of placenta etc. These medicines are suitable for both the human as well as animals being cost economic and without side effects. Out of 21,000 medicinal plants listed by World Health organization, 2,500 species are found in India making India the largest potential producer of medicinal herbs. The plant or herbs particularly the fruits and vegetables are the cheapest and most common store of nutrients viz., carbohydrates, protein, vitamin, minerals and essential amino acids along with dietary fiber and thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and obesity. Apart from this, fruits and vegetables also supply additional vitamins and minerals to the diet and are important sources of phytochemicals that play important role as antioxidants, phytoestrogens and anti-inflammatory agents and through various protective mechanisms. Fruits and vegetables have the potential to develop nutritional ingredients and supplements, causing a change in the perception of horticultural crops and products and helps in anaerobic digestion. The present review discusses the role of fiber and health benefits of fruits and vegetables for humans and their companion animals.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Mani Saminathan , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a well known herb possessing several health benefits. The steroidal lactones (withanolides) obtained from its roots have been implicated in a wide range of therapeutic activities and maintaining general health: Immunomodulation, combating infectious agents, anti-cancer and anti-epileptic, memory enhancer, to promote good physical and mental health, mood elevator, diuretic, general tonic and rejuvenator, stress reliever, cardiorespiratory endurance enhancer, anti-ageing, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and in common an effective adaptogen. Steroidal alkaloids and lactones are the active constituents of the plant. Withanolides as per theory occupies the receptor sites in the cell membrane thereby preventing the attachment and subsequent exertion of the effect of actual hormone. Withanolides have got analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity due to cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition property. Ashwagandha enhances nitric oxide synthatase activity of the macrophages, which in turn increases the microbial killing power of these immune cells thereby enhancing the Cell Mediated Immune (CMI) response. A glycoprotein Glycowithanolides (WSG) commonly known as W. somnifera glycoprotein is responsible for antimicrobial activity. Milk supplemented with Ashwagandha has been reported to increase total proteins and body weight and the plant alone helps in inducing tolerance and dependence. Its anti-stress and radiosensitization action; beneficial effects on cardiovascular system and sexual behavior; curative properties against neurodegenerative diseases and poisoning due to toxins and chemicals (including snake venom) has made this plant a treasure of nature. Thus the plant is an important component of many polyherbal preparations. Important for researchers and scientists is that biotechnologically advanced techniques; novel disciplines of bioinformatics and genomics can help in identifying and generating bioactive principles of the plant. All these salient health applications of this herb in biomedicine and veterinary sciences are discussed in this review focusing its potent role in maintaining sound health, immunomodulatory effects, combating infections, therapeutic usages and other beneficial applications.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar Verma , Sandip Chakraborty , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Since ancient era, herbal therapy remained as medicine’s backbone which is economic, safer and easily available to most of people in world. Among diverse herbal treasure, Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a highly esteemed tree with several beneficial properties and applications especially known for its incredible therapeutic and ethnomedicinal values for humankind. Neem is regarded as “free tree of India”, “wonder tree”, “Nature’s drug store”, Village dispensary”, “Divine tree”, “heal all”, “Materia medica” and “Panacea of all Diseases”. It is among highly exploited medicinal plant of Indian origin. It has been used in different medicinal systems: ayurveda, unani, homoeopathic medicine, therefore, considered as cynosure of modern medicine. All parts of the plant have some biological and medicinal properties hence valuable source of natural medicinal products. Compounds isolated from neem are broadly classified into two: (1) Isoprenoids (2) Non-isoprenoids. Isoprenoid compounds consists of diterpenoids, triterpenoids and steroids while while non-isoprenoids contains proteins and/or amino acids, polysaccharides, flavonoids etc. It is found beneficial in leprosy, gastro-intestinal problems, malaria, intestinal helminthiasis, tuberculosis, ringworms, skin disorders, boils, epilepsy, fever, respiratory distress, nausea, ulcers and in many other health related problems. This review gives a bird’s eye view particularly on history, classification, active principles, mechanism of action and potential uses of neem in safeguarding human and animal health along with the several commercial preparations available in the market.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Naveen Kumar , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Sarjeet Singh , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  Bovine Johne’s Disease (BJD) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects ruminants worldwide and is having significant impact on the world economy and has been frequently reported from farm and farmer’s herds. An attack of Johne’s disease in a newly established cattle dairy farm consisting of high yielding Holstein Friesian (HF) cows in the Alwar district of Rajasthan was investigated for the first time in India. Since slaughter of cows is prohibited in India therefore management of bovine JD is critical for the success of dairy industry in the country and in this aspect the research paper is significant. Out of a total of 35 fecal samples screened by microscopy, 24 (68.5%) were positive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Screening of 26 serum and 23 milk samples by ‘Indigenous ELISA kit’ employing semi-purified antigen of native strain (‘S 5’) of MAP, 24 (92.3%) and 14 (60.8%) were positive, respectively. Sensitivity of ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ with reference to fecal microscopy and milk ELISA was 88.2 and 90.0%, respectively. Screening of blood samples of 14 cows, by specific PCR (IS900), 5 (35.7%) were positive. Genotyping of PCR positive HF crossbred cows using IS1311 PCR-REA showed presence of highly pathogenic ‘Indian Bison type’ genotype. Comparison of 3 tests (milk ELISA, fecal microscopy and IS900 PCR) with ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ revealed substantial agreement between tests. Study also reported serious economic losses in terms of productivity (reduced quality and quantity of milk), reduced fertility and conception, decreased body weight and growth rate which left the farmer economy devastated due to attack of Johne’s disease in high yielding cattle herd of HF crossbred cows.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Naveen Kumar , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Ajay Vir Singh , Pravin Kumar Singh , Narottam Das Agrawal , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Avnish Kumar , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Rajib Deb and Kuldeep Dhama
  Bio-load of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis was estimated in the first mass screening of human population in Mathura region of South Uttar Pradesh. Of the 48,919 samples collected between December, 2010 and March, 2013 from Pathology laboratories, 26,390 were screened by indigenous ELISA kit, IS900 blood and stool PCR, IS1311 PCR_REA and stool microscopy. Of the 23,196 serum samples screened by indigenous ELISA, 34.0% were positive for MAP infection (Mathura-35.4% and Agra 14.2%). Percent prevalence of MAP infection was 28.3, 41.8, 37.4, 29.5, 41.1, 40.7, 42.5, 36.5 and 51.2 in patients suspected for diabetes, liver disorders, anaemia, thyroid disorder, tuberculosis, typhoid, abdominal disorders, inflammatory illness and ion imbalance, respectively. Of 3093 blood samples screened by IS900 PCR, 8.4% were positive (Mathura-9.2% and Agra-7.9%). Percent prevalence of MAP was 4.8, 7.0, 20.0, 4.9, 17.8, 7.6 and 12.7 in patients suspected for diabetic, liver disorder, skin disorders, anaemia, Malaria, typhoid and apparently normal individuals, respectively. Of the 101 stool samples screened by microscopy, 5.9% were positive and of these 2.9% were confirmed by IS900 PCR. IS1311 PCR_REA bio-typing showed ‘Indian Bison Type’ was the most prevalent biotype. Study indicated large scale exposure of human population to MAP infection in the Mathura region of South Uttar Pradesh and like in animals‘Indian Bison Type’ was the most prevalent biotype of MAP infecting human beings in this region.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Shyma K. Latheef , Hari Abdul Samad , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar and Anu Rahal
  Signaling molecules of immune system are cytokines that may either stimulate or suppress the responses of various cells involved in host immune mechanisms and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is one of the leading members of the group of cytokines. TNF-α from activated macrophages and LT-α/TNF-Β from T cells have now become representatives of a distinctive superfamily of cytokine ligands (TNF ligand superfamily) along with their corresponding receptors (TNF receptor superfamily); altogether constituting the TNF Superfamily. These are highly conserved proteins, found in all mammals having important ligand members which interact with the either of the two receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, that initiate varied signaling cascades leading to diverse cellular responses. It has been established that the appropriate regulation of TNF ligand and receptor interactions and functions are crucial for the proper immune system activity. Excessive production of various TNF cytokines has been attributed with the development of an array of autoimmune as well as inflammatory conditions. TNF cytokines help to reduce mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Therapeutic TNF blockers include:monoclonal antibodies to TNF (Infliximab and Adalumimab) and TNF receptor fusion proteins (Etanercept and Lenercept) and are effective against rheumatoid arthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; psoriasis and asthma. Preclinical studies conducted in murine models and the pivotal role played by the TNF superfamily in cytokine mediator system will make it easier for researchers as well as scientists to develop novel drugs in near future. This review has covered all these aspects concerning TNF as mediator of inflammatory diseases and its therapeutic targeting.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal , Shyma K. Latheef , Mohd Yaqoob Wani and Sanjay Kapoor
  Avian/Bird flu, caused by Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family, is the most fearful viral disease of birds. H5N1 subtype of AIV is of major concern for poultry as well as for humans due to its high economical impacts and zoonotic concerns. During the past ten years, the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype alone has affected more than 60 countries of the world. Domestic poultry is mostly affected by the disease episodes and outbreaks. Wild and migratory birds are the AIV reservoirs wherein H5N1 is found to be lethal. Major antigenic changes in Haemagglutinin (HA) or Neuraminidase (NA) result in periodic pandemics. Pigs can act as mixing vessel. The bird flu virus if gets the capability of transmitting from human to human can trigger a pandemic claiming millions of lives. A wide variety of serological tests and molecular tools have greatly aided in the diagnosis of avian flu. Disease management for the prevention of bird flu outbreaks including mass awareness and pandemic preparedness following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines is of utmost importance. Interesting approaches of HPAI control are development of universal influenza virus vaccines and universal antibodies-based flu therapies. Vaccination using inactivated and recombinant vaccines is the common strategy adopted in different parts of the globe. Development of new generation vaccines is quiet noteworthy. Tamiflu is the drug of choice. Herbal therapy is gaining much attention to control disease in humans. All these aspects of the bird flu virus have been discussed vividly in the present review.
  Shambhu Dayal Singh , Rajamani Barathidasan , Asok Kumar , Rajib Deb , Amit Kumar Verma and Kuldeep Dhama
  Marek’s Disease (MD), caused by Marek’s Disease Virus (MDV) is a highly contagious oncogenic and neuropathic disease of chickens responsible for great economic losses to the poultry industry all around the world and characterized by development of CD4+T cell lymphomas as well as infiltration of nerves and visceral organs by lymphocytes. MD is one of the most common lymphoproliferative diseases of chickens which cause mononuclear cell infiltration in one or more of the following tissues: peripheral nerves, gonads, lymphoid organs, iris, muscle, skin and other visceral organs resulting into development of tumours in visceral organs, paralysis of legs, wings and neck, grey eye (iris) or irregular pupil, vision impairment, blindness, skin lesions and immunosuppression, all of which can be accompanied by non-specific signs such as anorexia, weight loss and poor performance. Today there are evolving highly pathogenic isolates of MDV around the world capable of overwhelming the protection from currently employed vaccines. Thus MD poses a big challenge to the welfare and wellbeing of the poultry with increased condemnation of carcass, loss of productivity and quality products, leading to huge economic losses. It is also an immunosuppressive disease and causes increased susceptibility to other infections. The present review discusses in brief about the Marek’s disease, its etiology, conventional and advance tools and techniques being used for its diagnosis, prevention and control strategies in poultry.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Amit Kumar Verma , S. Rajagunalan , Rajib Deb , K. Karthik , Sanjay Kapoor , Mahima , Ruchi Tiwari , Parmod Kumar Panwar and Sandip Chakraborty
  Flu viruses have mainly affected humans, birds and pigs worldwide. During the past 10 years these viruses are in limelight at a global level due to pandemic threats of Avian / Bird Flu and Swine Flu and their public health impacts, with added pandemic of swine flu virus recently. The current ongoing episodes of bird flu and swine flu are beyond the control, when and where or which country they start with nobody can predict. The continuous evolution and emergence of new strains indicate that the flu viruses are becoming more and more dangerous and this situation has posed a challenge to researchers to discover effective vaccines and therapeutics. Moreover, the role of pig as ‘mixing bowl’ for the virus to get reassorted has added to the complicated epidemiological scenario. The swine flu H1N1 reassorted subtype caused the first global pandemic in last 40 years, resulting in substantial illness, hospitalizations of millions of peoples and thousands of deaths throughout the world. A pace is there within these novel and emerging flu viruses and the scientific community, where the scientific community has to win the race so as to save the mankind. In this review, a brief overview on swine flu is presented highlighting the characteristics of the causative virus, the disease and its public health consequences, advances made in its diagnosis, vaccine and control, precautionary measures to be adapted in the wake of an outbreak.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Mahima , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amit Kumar Verma , Rajib Deb , Ruchi Tiwari and Sanjay Kapoor
  Modern medicine has helped to a great extent to eradicate and cure several diseases of mankind and animals. But the existence of incurable diseases like cancer, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, side effects of allopathic medicine, increasing trend of antibiotic resistance and chemicals and biopesticides causing dietary risk have made the situation more critical than ever before. Thus, it has become a matter of concern for the scientists and researchers to develop novel therapies. Bacteriophage therapy to treat pathogenic bacterial infections, virophage therapy for conservation of global system and avian egg yolk antibody therapy for designing prophylactic strategies against Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are interesting approaches. Others include the use of cytokines as adjunctive immunomodulators, gene therapy focusing on diseases caused by single gene defects, RNAi technology to suppress specific gene of interest and apoptins for cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy against several diseases and ailments has also been discussed. The use of nanoparticles for better drug delivery, even though costly, has been given equal importance. Nevertheless, immunomodulation, be it through physiological, chemical or microbial products, or through essential micronutrients, probiotics, herbs or cow therapy prove to be cost-effective, causing minimum adverse reactions when compared to allopathy. Development in the field of molecular biology has created an enormous impact on vaccine development. The present review deals with all these novel and emerging therapies essential to safeguard the health of humans and companion animals.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Kuldeep Dhama , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Naveen Kumar , Pravin Kumar Singh , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Saurabh Gupta , Ajay Vir Singh , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Mahima , S. Chakraborty and Rajib Deb
  Johne’s disease or Paratuberculosis has emerged as major infectious disease of animals in general and domestic livestock in particular on global basis. There have been major initiatives in developed countries for the control of this incurable malady of animals and human beings alike (inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn’s disease). Disease has not received similar attention due to inherent complexities of disease, diagnosis and control, in resource poor counties around the world. However, the rich genetic diverstiy of the otherwise low productive animal population offers opportunity for the control of Johne’s disease and improve per animal productivity. Present review aims to gather and compile information available on genetics or resistance to Johne’s disease and its future exploitation by resource poor countries rich in animal diversity. This review will also help to create awareness and share knowledge and experience on prevalence and opportunities for control of Johne’s disease in the livestock population to boost per animal productivity among developing and poor countries of the world. Breeding of animals for disease resistance provides good, safe, effective and cheaper way of controlling Johne’s disease in animals, with especial reference to domestic livestock of developing and poor countries. Study will help to establish better understanding of the correlation between host cell factors and resistance to MAP infection which may have ultimately help in the control of Johne’s disease in future.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Amit Kumar Verma , S. Rajagunalan , Amit Kumar , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty and Rajesh Kumar
  Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.
  Mahima , Abhijeet M. Ingle , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Rajib Deb , S. Rajagunalan , Rajesh Rathore and Kuldeep Dhama
  There are ongoing trends of immunomodulation to combat a vast range of human and animal diseases including the incurable diseases like viral diseases, cancers, autoimmune diseases and inflammatory conditions. Animate as well as non-animate factors, surrounding us are interacting with our immune system. A balanced diet should contain all essential components from energy to vitamin and trace minerals. Each of these constituent has a very special effect on the immune system starting from their development to active role in immunity therefore, the outcome of their deficiency often ends in disease. Edible items which we consume like various vegetables, spices, herbs, fruits etc., are also equally responsible in manipulation of our system either in positive or negative way. Water has biggest share in our body and acts as the main medium to support the activities of the different system of body without exception of immune system. Proper environmental temperature is essential to maintain body’s functions and experiments carried out regarding the effect of temperature suggest that extremes of the temperature are often cause immunosuppression directly by acting on the cells of immunity or indirectly through inducing stress and thereby increasing production of catecholamine which are potent anti-immune molecules. Various pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic bacteria cause immune suppression and immune potentiation, respectively. Proper exercise hold a prime position in the healthy life as it supports immunity and keeps disease away. The present review deals with all these immunomodulators having both positive and negative impact on the health status of an individual.
  Anu Rahal , A. H. Ahmad , Amit Kumar , Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  Every time a drug is administered to the animal to treat an ailment, no matter whether it is acute or chronic manifestation, it usually goes together with some other prescription medicine, OTC (Over the counter) formulation, herbs or even food. All the xenobiotics such as drugs, toxins and food components as well as the endogenous compound that are formed in the animal body as a routine phenomenon exert a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on the different physiological and biochemical processes going in the body. These effects may alter the normal metabolism and/or drug transport or its efficacy drastically and thus expose the man and animals to the risk of a potentially dangerous interaction. The present review discusses these potential reactions and their mechanisms that help in navigating the hazardous combinations of drugs with other medicines, food, herbs, vitamins and minerals with confidence.
  Rajib Deb , Amit Kumar , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama , Umesh Singh and Sushil Kumar
  Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin (IL) 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1) are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Rajamani Barathidasan , Amit Kumar and Shambhu Dayal Singh
  Fungal/mycotic diseases cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry either due to their direct infectious nature or due to production of mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites produced in grains or poultry feed. Several fungi have created havoc in the poultry industry and some of them cause direct harm to human health due to their zoonotic implications. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. Mycotic dermatitis is a possible health hazard associated with poultry houses. Mycotoxins are the leading cause of producing immunosuppression in birds, which makes them prone to several bacterial and viral infections leading to huge economic losses to the poultry industry. In comparison to bacterial and viral diseases, advances in diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of fungal diseases in poultry has not taken much attention. Recently, molecular biological tools have been explored for rapid and accurate diagnosis of important fungal infections. Effective prevention and control measures include: appropriate hygiene, sanitation and disinfection, strict biosecurity programme and regular surveillance/monitoring of fungal infections as well as following judicious use of anti-fungal drugs. Precautionary measures during crop production, harvesting and storing and in feed mixing plants can help to check the fungal infections including health hazards of mycotoxins/mycotoxicosis. The present review describes the fungal pathogens causing diseases in poultry/birds, especially focusing to their diagnosis, prevention and control measures, which would help in formulating appropriate strategies to have a check and control on these unwanted troubles to the poultry producers/farmers.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Kuldeep Dhama , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amit Kumar and Sanjay Kapoor
  Darwin’s theory of natural selection and concept of survival of fittest of Wallace is a universal truth which derives the force of life among all live entities on this biosphere. Issues regarding food safety along with increased drug resistance and emerging zoonotic infections have proved that multidisciplinary efforts are in demand for human and animal welfare. This has led to development of various novel therapies the list of which remains incomplete without mentioning about phages. Homologous and non-homologous recombination along with point mutation and addition of new genes play role in their evolution. The rapid emergence of the antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria have created keen interest in finding necessary alternatives to check microbial infections and there comes the importance of phages. Phages kill the bacteria either by lysis or by releasing holins. Bacteriophages; the viruses that live on bacteria are nowadays considered as the best biocontrol agents. They are used as replacers of antibiotics; food industry promoter; guard of aquatic life as well as of plants; pre-slaughter treatment agents; Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food additives; Typing agent of bacteria; active tool of super bug therapy; in post harvest crops and food and during post infection and also to combat intracellular pathogens viz. Mycobacteria and Mycoplasma. Cyanophages/phycophages are particularly useful in controlling blooms produced by various genera of algae and cyanobacteria. By performing centrifugation studies and based on electron microscopy certain virus like particles containing ds RNA have been confirmed as mycophages. They are well proven as threat to pathogenic fungi (both fungal hyphae and yeast). Those that infect yeasts are called zymophages. Virophages have exquisite specificity for their viral host, hence can extensively be used for genetic studies and can also act as evolutionary link. After the discovery of very first virophage till now, a total of 3 virophages have been discovered including the Sputnik virophages that are used to study genetic recombination. Virophages also find their application in antiviral therapy; as engineer of ecological system etc. In brief, present review deals with various dimensions of these beneficial viruses that are being used and can be successfully used in future for safeguarding biosphere including animal and human health.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal and Sanjay Kapoor
  Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns incuding of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review.
  Narayan Mohapatra , Jag Mohan Kataria , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  Egg Drop Syndrome-76 (EDS-76) is a recognized disease of chickens and Japanese Quails, which is of high economic importance due to its drastic negative effects on egg production in laying birds. The aim of the present study was to better understand the EDS-76 viral disease process in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), since very limited studies have been conducted in this species of birds. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted with infection of EDS-76 virus in laying Japanese quails to reveal pathology, effect on egg production/quality and immune responses of this virus in these birds. By 7, 9 and 13-15 Days Post Infection (DPI), drop as well as aberrant egg production and lower mean egg quality were observed compared to control birds. Significant histopathological changes were observed in genitalia and spleen. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) titres rose rapidly by 2nd week when it became maximum; thereafter declined and maintained at low levels up to 10 week post infection. The mean total protein values in infected quail gradually increased to 4.10±0.05/100 mL without any change in mean albumen value at 12 DPI. In conclusion, the course of the EDS-76 is significant not only in chickens but also in quails even though it occurs occasionally in quails. Explorative pathological, blood biochemical and immunological studies are suggested during EDS-76 viral disease course in quails. This would aid in formulating effective disease prevention and control measures for this economically important disease of poultry.
  Rajib Deb , Sandip Chakraborty , Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari and Kuldeep Dhama
  Nutrigenomics a novel era in genomics research is based on puzzling issue on how nutrition and genes re-interacts. Perusal of literature reveals that very few information are available in this field and especially when it is associated with puberty in cattle which is a multigenic trait of great economic importance. Thus it opens a new area of research interest. Various markers like-gonadotropin releasing hormone/GNRH (responsible for sexual differentiation and reproduction), interstitial growth regulating factor/IGF1 (having signal controlling reproduction function linked to somatic growth); circulating metabolic hormones viz., leptin apart from GnRH and IGF1 (having impact on testicular development in peripubertal bull) are proved to be associated with male puberty in cattle. Various minerals (copper, selenium, manganese, zinc, chromium, iron and molybdenum) and vitamins (Vit. A, D, E and C) are directly or indirectly linked to male puberty. But no research till today initiated how the nutrients effect on the transcriptome/proteome/ metabolome level of marker genes associated with male puberty in cattle. Application of nanotechnology to make food safer for promotion of good health has created much excitement and nanoparticles has been developed against infectious diseases (e.g., Campylobacteriosis) affecting puberty along with certain nanocarriers that can facilitate the uptake of essential nutrients associated with puberty. Much of nutrigenomics research is however in infancy and hence the present mini-review will allow building the concept among researchers and scientists to initiate research in this interesting area.
  Kuldeep Dhama , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Sanjay Kapoor , Amit Kumar and Prasad Thomas
  Diagnosis is an important part in case of animal husbandry as treatment of a disease depends on it. Advancement in molecular biology has generated various sophisticated tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), its versions along with pen-side diagnostic techniques. Every diagnostic test however has both advantages and disadvantages; PCR is not an exception to this statement. To ease the odds faced by PCR several non-PCR techniques which can amplify DNA at a constant temperature has become the need of hour, thus generating a variety of isothermal amplification techniques including Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification (NASBA) along with Self-Sustained Sequence Replication (3SR) and Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) and Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test. LAMP stands out to be a good and effective diagnostic test for empowering in developing countries as it does not require sophisticated equipments and skilled personnel and proves to be cost-effective. Performance of LAMP mainly relies on crafting of six primers (including 2 loop primers) ultimately accelerating the reaction. LAMP amplifies DNA in the process pyrophosphates are formed causing turbidity that facilitates visualisation in a more effective way than PCR. The Bst and Bsm polymerase are the required enzymes for LAMP that does not possess 5'-3' exonuclease activity. Results can be visualized by adding DNA binding dye, SYBR green. LAMP is more stable than PCR and real-time PCR. Non-involvement of template DNA preparation and ability to generate 109 copies of DNA are added benefits that make it more effective than NASBA or 3SR and SDA. Thus, it fetches researcher’s interest in developing various versions of LAMP viz., its combination with lateral flow assay or micro LAMP and more recently lyophilized and electric (e) LAMP. Availability of ready to use LAMP kits has helped diagnosis of almost all pathogens. LAMP associated technologies however needs to be developed as a part of LAMP platform rather than developing them as separate entities. This review deals with all these salient features of this newly developed tool that has enlightened the world of diagnosis.
  Mohd Yaqoob Wani , Kuldeep Dhama , Shyma K. Latheef , Rajamani Barathidassan , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Milind Madhukar Chawak and Shambhu Dayal Singh
  Chicken Infectious Anaemia Virus (CIAV) is one of the potent immunosuppressive and economically important agents affecting poultry industry worldwide. Recent reports indicate the emergence of this virus in the poultry flocks of the country. The present study aimed to investigate the pathogenic potential of a recent isolate of CIAV obtained from poultry flock of Uttaranchal State, India. Twenty first day-old age Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) chicks were inoculated intramuscularly with 104.5 median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of CIAV passaged in the Marek’s disease virus transformed chicken splenic T lymphocyte (MDCC-MSB1) cell line while 15 chicks were kept as control. The CIAV isolate produced consistent clinical signs, loss in body weight gain, anaemia, low haematocrit values, bone marrow aplasia and generalized lymphoid atrophy. Mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV) value of the infected chicks was significantly low (18.22±2.22) compared to control group (34.12±4.72) at 14 day post infection (dpi). The establishment of virus infection in chicks was confirmed both at molecular and antigenic levels by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Indirect Immunofluorescent Test (IIFT), respectively. Characteristic apoptotic pattern was also detected in the affected organs and the virus was re-isolated successfully in MDCC-MSB1 cell cultures. The present results revealed that the virus circulating in poultry flocks of Uttaranchal state is both pathogenic and immunosuppressive in nature. Extensive epidemiological studies are suggested in the poultry flocks of the country along with adaptation of appropriate diagnostic, prevention and control strategies so as to prevent economic losses caused by this important poultry pathogen.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Shambhu Dayal Singh , Rajamani Barathidasan , P.A. Desingu , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari and M. Asok Kumar
  Growth in poultry sector is being challenged due to increased incidence and re-emergence of diseases caused due to evolution of several viral pathogens and use of live vaccines. Piles of economic losses are encountered due to these diseases. Avian Infectious Bronchitis (IB), caused by Corona virus, is OIE-listed disease and characterized by respiratory, renal and urogenital involvements, causing high mortality. Economic losses are encountered due to loss of productive performance of both egg and meat-type chickens. Variant viruses evolve due to spontaneous mutations and recombinations, causing disease in vaccinated flocks of all ages. Serotyping and genotyping are the common methods of classification of IBV strains. The virus has 4 clusters, grouped into 7 serotypes and the most important strains are Massachusetts, Connecticut, Arkansas, Gray, Holte and Florida along with numerous others, distributed round the globe. Several conventional and molecular diagnostic methods have been described for the diagnosis of IB in chickens. 'All-in/all-out' operations of rearing along with good biosafety measures forms the basis of prevention, whereas vaccination forms the backbone of IB control programme. Both live and inactivated (oil emulsified) conventional vaccines are available. The new generation vaccines (recombinant and vector-based) developed against locally prevailing IBV strains may be more helpful and avoid the reversion of virulence in live vaccine viruses. The present review deals with all these perspectives of this important emerging poultry pathogen.
 
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