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Articles by Naveen Kumar
Total Records ( 7 ) for Naveen Kumar
  Vaibhav Ahlawat , Sandeep Tripathi and Naveen Kumar
  Researchers all over the world have been striving hard to find a sustainable solution to the future energy requirements. In this context, an engine using compressed air might very well prove to be an effective solution. In the present study, a 4 stroke engine was modified to run on compressed air and a specially designed “articulated connecting rod” has been used, which has the provision of dwelling at the top dead center. This would make the injection of compressed air a constant volume process inside the cylinder contrary to conventional engines. In the proposed design, compressed air was supplied through a distribution system in time sequence into separate cylinders of the engine by solenoid-actuated valves located in spark plug holes. A valve actuator, which modified the time interval over which compressed air was admitted into the cylinder, in accordance with engine speed, was also incorporated. The proposed engine was theoretically compared with an ideal Otto cycle in terms of its efficiency and power generated. The results were found to be acceptable to put the proposed engine into actual practice with ample scope left for future work.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Naveen Kumar , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Sarjeet Singh , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  Bovine Johne’s Disease (BJD) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects ruminants worldwide and is having significant impact on the world economy and has been frequently reported from farm and farmer’s herds. An attack of Johne’s disease in a newly established cattle dairy farm consisting of high yielding Holstein Friesian (HF) cows in the Alwar district of Rajasthan was investigated for the first time in India. Since slaughter of cows is prohibited in India therefore management of bovine JD is critical for the success of dairy industry in the country and in this aspect the research paper is significant. Out of a total of 35 fecal samples screened by microscopy, 24 (68.5%) were positive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Screening of 26 serum and 23 milk samples by ‘Indigenous ELISA kit’ employing semi-purified antigen of native strain (‘S 5’) of MAP, 24 (92.3%) and 14 (60.8%) were positive, respectively. Sensitivity of ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ with reference to fecal microscopy and milk ELISA was 88.2 and 90.0%, respectively. Screening of blood samples of 14 cows, by specific PCR (IS900), 5 (35.7%) were positive. Genotyping of PCR positive HF crossbred cows using IS1311 PCR-REA showed presence of highly pathogenic ‘Indian Bison type’ genotype. Comparison of 3 tests (milk ELISA, fecal microscopy and IS900 PCR) with ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ revealed substantial agreement between tests. Study also reported serious economic losses in terms of productivity (reduced quality and quantity of milk), reduced fertility and conception, decreased body weight and growth rate which left the farmer economy devastated due to attack of Johne’s disease in high yielding cattle herd of HF crossbred cows.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Naveen Kumar , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Ajay Vir Singh , Pravin Kumar Singh , Narottam Das Agrawal , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Avnish Kumar , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Rajib Deb and Kuldeep Dhama
  Bio-load of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis was estimated in the first mass screening of human population in Mathura region of South Uttar Pradesh. Of the 48,919 samples collected between December, 2010 and March, 2013 from Pathology laboratories, 26,390 were screened by indigenous ELISA kit, IS900 blood and stool PCR, IS1311 PCR_REA and stool microscopy. Of the 23,196 serum samples screened by indigenous ELISA, 34.0% were positive for MAP infection (Mathura-35.4% and Agra 14.2%). Percent prevalence of MAP infection was 28.3, 41.8, 37.4, 29.5, 41.1, 40.7, 42.5, 36.5 and 51.2 in patients suspected for diabetes, liver disorders, anaemia, thyroid disorder, tuberculosis, typhoid, abdominal disorders, inflammatory illness and ion imbalance, respectively. Of 3093 blood samples screened by IS900 PCR, 8.4% were positive (Mathura-9.2% and Agra-7.9%). Percent prevalence of MAP was 4.8, 7.0, 20.0, 4.9, 17.8, 7.6 and 12.7 in patients suspected for diabetic, liver disorder, skin disorders, anaemia, Malaria, typhoid and apparently normal individuals, respectively. Of the 101 stool samples screened by microscopy, 5.9% were positive and of these 2.9% were confirmed by IS900 PCR. IS1311 PCR_REA bio-typing showed ‘Indian Bison Type’ was the most prevalent biotype. Study indicated large scale exposure of human population to MAP infection in the Mathura region of South Uttar Pradesh and like in animals‘Indian Bison Type’ was the most prevalent biotype of MAP infecting human beings in this region.
  Naveen Kumar , Zhong-tao Xin , Yuhong Liang , Hinh Ly and Yuying Liang
  The NF-κB signaling pathway has previously been shown to be required for efficient influenza A virus replication, although the molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we identified a specific step of the influenza virus life cycle that is influenced by NF-κB signaling by using two known NF-κB inhibitors and a variety of influenza virus-specific assays. The results of time course experiments suggest that the NF-κB inhibitors Bay11-7082 and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate inhibited an early postentry step of viral infection, but they did not appear to affect the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex. Instead, we found that the levels of influenza virus genomic RNA (vRNA), but not the corresponding cRNA or mRNA, were specifically reduced by the inhibitors in virus-infected cells, indicating that NF-κB signaling is intimately involved in the vRNA synthesis. Furthermore, we showed that the NF-κB inhibitors specifically diminished influenza virus RNA transcription from the cRNA promoter but not from the vRNA promoter in a reporter assay, a result which is consistent with data obtained from virus-infected cells. The overexpression of the p65 NF-κB molecule could not only eliminate the inhibition but also activate influenza virus RNA transcription from the cRNA promoter. Finally, using p65-specific small interfering RNA, we have shown that p65 knockdown reduced the levels of influenza virus replication and vRNA synthesis. In summary, we have provided evidence showing, for the first time, that the NF-κB host signaling pathway can differentially regulate influenza virus RNA synthesis, which may also offer some new perspectives into understanding the host regulation of RNA synthesis by other RNA viruses.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Kuldeep Dhama , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Naveen Kumar , Pravin Kumar Singh , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Saurabh Gupta , Ajay Vir Singh , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Mahima , S. Chakraborty and Rajib Deb
  Johne’s disease or Paratuberculosis has emerged as major infectious disease of animals in general and domestic livestock in particular on global basis. There have been major initiatives in developed countries for the control of this incurable malady of animals and human beings alike (inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn’s disease). Disease has not received similar attention due to inherent complexities of disease, diagnosis and control, in resource poor counties around the world. However, the rich genetic diverstiy of the otherwise low productive animal population offers opportunity for the control of Johne’s disease and improve per animal productivity. Present review aims to gather and compile information available on genetics or resistance to Johne’s disease and its future exploitation by resource poor countries rich in animal diversity. This review will also help to create awareness and share knowledge and experience on prevalence and opportunities for control of Johne’s disease in the livestock population to boost per animal productivity among developing and poor countries of the world. Breeding of animals for disease resistance provides good, safe, effective and cheaper way of controlling Johne’s disease in animals, with especial reference to domestic livestock of developing and poor countries. Study will help to establish better understanding of the correlation between host cell factors and resistance to MAP infection which may have ultimately help in the control of Johne’s disease in future.
  Sangeeta Sharma , Shoma Mukherjee , Naveen Kumar , A. Prakash , Fauzia Tabassum , Rachna Agarwal and Kaushal Kumar
  Objective: To study the relationship between Carbamazepine (CBZ) levels and dose in North Indian population. Methods: A retrospective analysis from therapeutic drug monitoring data during 1998-2009 for patient receiving CBZ alone for >4 weeks and sample drawn before the next scheduled dose. Samples drawn for peak levels, suspected non-compliance, overdose and patients with renal/hepatic disorder were excluded. Results: Out of 9310 assays, 2816 fulfilling the criteria were assigned three groups consisting of children 1-18 years (1319), adult 19-60 years (1477) and elderly >60 years (20). Significant differences in mean dose ratio was found in both children and adult, though, was higher in children (0.02±0.01, p<0.01). Significant difference was also found between adult male and females (p<0.01). A negative significant correlation between CBZ daily dose and dose ratio was found in children (r = -0.577, p<0.01) and adults (r = - 0.543, p<0.01). Significant positive linear relation was found between CBZ dose and concentration in children (r = 0.201, p<0.01) and also in adults (r = 0.177, p<0.01) but was not significant in elderly. Conclusion: North Indian children and adult females might attain a higher serum CBZ concentration with the same dose; however larger sample size for elderly should be studied.
  Anburaja MAHALINGAM , Naveen KUMAR , Swapan K. MAITI , Ashok K. SHARMA , Umesh DIMRI and Meena KATARIA
  Ten clinically healthy, adult male dogs randomly equally divided into 2 groups (I and II) were subjected to laparoscopic sterilization and open method castration under xylazine-ketamine anesthesia. In group I laparoscopic vasectomy by cauterization and cutting of the vas deferens was performed and in group II conventional open castration by the pre-scrotal approach was done. Insufflation of the abdominal cavity was achieved with CO2 (2 L/min) at 10 mmHg pressure gradient. Two ports were needed to carry out the operation. Clinical observations revealed no significant changes. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) revealed significant neutrophilia and comparative lymphopenia on the 3rd postoperative day in both the groups. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma alkaline and acid phosphatase level was observed in both the groups on day 3 postoperatively. Indices of oxidative stress viz. lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione activity and acute phase protein, and ceruloplasmin level in plasma did not reveal any major significant changes. Plasma cortisol level did not show any significant change in group I whereas in group II the level increased significantly (P < 0.01) after the operation. No significant change in testosterone level was observed in group I whereas in group II a significant decrease (P < 0.01) was observed immediately after the operation. On the basis of the parameters studied it can be concluded that early healing and better cosmoses were achieved by laparoscopic sterilization (vasectomy) in male dogs as compared to the conventional open method of castration and the technique can be successfully applied for mass sterilization programs.
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