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Articles by Nurul Huda
Total Records ( 13 ) for Nurul Huda
  Ratna Sari Dewi , Nurul Huda and Ruzita Ahmad
  The aim of the study was to identify physico-chemical properties, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and sensory characteristics of dendeng made from shark flesh (Chiloscyllium sp.). Three drying methods were used in this study and they were sun drying, oven drying and oven vacuum drying. Before drying, the slices with dimension of 4 cmx12 cmx3 mm were soaked in a mixture of sugar (20%), salt (1%), tamarind (4%), coriander (1.5%), galangal root (2.5%), ginger (0.5%), garlic (1.0%) and onion (1.0%) for 12 h. The drying was carried out until the moisture content reached 23-25%. Proximate analysis showed there were no significant differences among these samples but had significant influence (p<0.05) on the color. The lightness value for vacuum drying was 32.19 followed by oven drying (29.97) and sun drying (28.92). There were no significant differences in mineral values except for sodium (Na). SEM photograph shows that different drying methods affect the compactness of the tissue structure. Sensory evaluation result indicated that all samples were moderately acceptable but there were no significant difference among the samples. However, shark dendeng using oven drying was most preferred.
  Rodiana Nopianti , Nurul Huda and Noryati Ismail
  The functional properties of the myofibrillar proteins were protected during frozen storage when a cryoprotectant was added. Some normally used cryoprotectants are sorbitol, sucrose, polydextrose, lactitol, litesse, maltodextrin, trehalose, sodium lactate and mixtures of the above cryoprotectants. Phosphate is normally added to surimi in combination with cryoprotectants to reduce viscosity, increase moisture retention and the protein’s ability to reabsorb liquid when the surimi is thawed or tempered and increase the pH slightly, which leads to improved gel-forming ability, gel strength and cohesiveness. Some food additives also can be used to improve the physical properties of and prevent the textural degradation of, surimi gels such as egg whites, Beef Plasma Protein (BPP) and Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC). A new surimi-developing process using an acid and alkaline washing method has shown significant potential for use in increasing the concentration of myofibrillar protein in the surimi.
  Chew Shio Heong , Kaur , Bhupinder , Nurul Huda , Alias A. Karim and Ariffin Fazilah
  Centella asiatica leaves were exposed to fermentation/oxidation for varying amounts of time: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). The chemical composition of the teas was determined and compared with commercial Camellia sinensis teas. The results of proximate analysis showed Centella asiatica herbal teas contained significantly higher amounts of protein, fat and ash than Camellia sinensis teas. Compared to Camellia sinensis teas, all Centella asiatica tea infusion extracts contained significantly more total free amino acids (24.87-54.44 mg l-glutamic acid equivalent g-1) but significantly less total free polysaccharides (24.33-31.52 mg glucose equivalent g-1) and were caffeine free. High thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid contents were found in all Centella asiatica teas, but biotin was found only in fully fermented Centella asiatica tea (CAFF). Colour measurements demonstrated that Centella asiatica infusions generally had lowered a (greenness) and b (yellowness) values than Camellia sinensis teas. All infusions exhibited low turbidity levels (less than 10%), except for CAFF. However, the Centella asiatica teas exhibited significantly lower total phenolic (3.53-6.22 mg gallic acid equivalent g-1), total flavonoid (1.81-2.54 mg quercetin equivalent g-1) and total anthocyanin (0.99-1.49 mg catechin equivalent g-1) contents than Camellia sinensis teas and thus had lower antioxidant capacities (DPPH: 21.86-32.64 μm trolox equivalent g-1 and FRAP: 25.86-43.09 μm trolox equivalent g-1) than Camellia sinensis teas. Partially-fermented Centella asiatica (120 min) showed no significant change in antioxidant properties, but its total free polysaccharide content increased and it produced the darkest infusion.
  Nurul Huda , Ooi Jun Lin , Yong Chiew Ping and Tina Nurkhoeriyati
  In this study, sausages with different ratios of chicken to duck meat were produced: A (100:0), B (75:25), C (50:50), D (25:75) and E (0:100). Analyses of the physicochemical properties and chemical contents of the samples were carried out. The proximate contents were significantly different (p<0.05) among all samples with different formulations. In order, from samples A to E, moisture contents exhibited a decreasing trend, while protein, fat and ash contents showed increasing trends as the fraction of duck meat was increased in the formulation. Sausages having higher ratios of duck meat had a darker color, with the L* value decreasing from sample A to E. All the samples showed significant differences in the texture analysis. The texture of sausages became harder when more duck meat was incorporated in the formulation.
  Ishamri Ismail , Nurul Huda , Fazilah Ariffin and Noryati Ismail
  The objective of this research was to study the effect of washing cycles on the functional properties of washed duck meat. Five types of treatment were applied in this study: unwashing, single, double, triple and quadruple washing. The washing cycles were found to reduce fat content and protein content significantly. The quadruple washing resulted in the lowest cholesterol and myoglobin contents. Double washing showed significantly higher Lightness (L*) and Whiteness (W) values than the other washing cycles. Washing cycles increased the shear force of the samples (p>0.05). Washing cycles also significantly affected pH, folding test, gel strength, expressible moisture and WHC; quadruple washing exhibited a significantly higher pH, folding score, expressible moisture and WHC but reduced the gel strength of the sample. Sample treated with a double washing cycle exhibited the highest folding score, a low fat content and the best lightness and whiteness values.
  Nurul Huda , Lim Hoo Wei , Alistair T.L. Jean and Ishamri Ismail
  Sausage is becoming more popular to the Malaysian consumers. A study on quality characteristics for chicken sausages marketed in Malaysia was conducted to gauge the trend of marketed sausages today. A total of ten samples of chicken sausages from different brands were analyzed to determine the proximate composition, calcium and sodium contents, colour, folding test and textural properties (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force). The moisture, protein, fat and ash contents for chicken sausages were significantly different, in the range of 56.48-68.85%, 7.03-14.14%, 4.91-18.48% and 2.17-3.30%, respectively. The range of carbohydrate content was 6.69-21.59%. The calcium and sodium contents were varied in chicken sausages. The lightness value (L*) of sausage was significantly different among the samples in the range of 44.42-65.54. All chicken sausages samples tested in this study show good gel strength with their folding test at more than 4.0. The hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force ranged between 3.84-7.25 kg, 12.79-15.65 mm, 0.25-0.41 ratio, 1.28-2.58 kg, 16.81-33.01 and 0.58-1.95 kg, respectively. The results of this analysis showed that sausages produced by different manufacturers will varied significantly in quality and physicochemical properties.
  Kurnia Ramadhan , Nurul Huda and Ruzita Ahmad
  Poultry production has risen rapidly due to the increased consumption of further processed chicken-based products such as sausages, nuggets and burgers. This increase in poultry consumption has been dominated by chicken meat. Duck meat is also widely available but less frequently utilized in further processed products due to certain limitations of its functional properties. Nonetheless, duck meat production has increased steadily over the years. One technology that may improve the functional properties of meat is surimi processing. This specialized washing process removes undesired components (e.g., fats, blood, enzymes and pigments) and increases the concentration of myofibrillar proteins that play important roles in the functional properties of meat. The successful development of fish surimi has inspired researchers to study surimi-like material made from other animal muscle. Several researchers have tested the properties of surimi-like material made from beef, pork, chicken, mutton and sheep and reported improved qualities compared with the original (untreated) raw meats. Surimi-like material also has been used in several product formulations for nuggets, frankfurters, sausages, restructured roasts and imitation crab sticks. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that processing duck meat into surimi-like material could improve the functional properties of duck meat and allow its application in many further processed products.
  Ainul Mardiah , Nurul Huda and Ruzita Ahmad
  The objective of this project was to determine the chemical composition, color, shear force (N), sensory evaluation and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of fish flakes prepared with the addition of five different levels (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%) of Tapioca Starch (TS). Fish flakes were prepared from mixture of stingray meat, spices, TS and dried using oven dryer until the moisture content was reduced to about 25%. No significant difference was found in the fat, Ca and Fe contents among the five treatments. Sensory evaluation shows samples containing 15% of TS more acceptable by the panelists. A color analysis showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the samples except for the redness (a) values. The substitution of TS affected to the moisture content and texture of the final product. The shear force values tended to increase by increasing the levels of TS. The SEM photograph showed that increasing level of TS and heating treatment caused change in the microstructure and affected the shear force value of the end product. The information provided by this study can be utilized by the jerky producers to manufacture jerky from stingray meat as diversified jerky product which is already available in the market.
  Ainul Mardiah , Nurul Huda and Ruzita Ahmad
  The objectives of this research were to determine the protein quality of fish flakes made from stingray meat (Himantura gerrardi) and to evaluate the changes of the protein quality; Amino Acid Composition (AAC), Chemical Score (CS), Amino Acid Score (AAS) and Essential Amino Acid Index (EAAI) during the processing stages. Fish flakes was made from stingray meat which is added with tapioca starch and spices (garlic, onion, tamarind, palm sugar, ginger, coriander and root of galangal). All ingredients were mixed well and then spread into layers of 3 mm thickness and then steamed at 100°C for 1 h. Samples were cut into pieces measuring 12x4 cm rectangles and dried them in an oven dryer at 60°C until the moisture content was reduced to 25%. The results showed that the CS, AAS and EAAI of fish flakes before drying (dough) were 68.47, 116.51 and 94.06 g/100 g protein, respectively. Meanwhile, fish flakes after drying were 63.20, 99.21 and 88.00 g/100 g protein, respectively. The results indicates that chemical score, amino acid score and essential amino acid index of stingray fish flakes was not greatly decrease during processing stages, indicating that protein quality of stingray meat did not deteriorate significantly.
  Nurul Huda , Yap Hui Shen and Yong Lin Huey
  The results of the analyses of six brands of commercial chicken balls showed significant differences (p<0.05) in chemical composition, colour and texture among all samples. Most of the samples contained high moisture content (between 60.14-72.81%), with protein content ranging from a low of 9.93% to moderately high of 15.06%. However, the fat content displayed an inverse relationship as compared to protein, ranging from 4.26-14.00%. The low ash content ranging from 1.92-2.82%, could be contributed by the presence of salts and flavoring ingredients in the chicken balls. The difference in carbohydrate content ranging from 5.54-20.85%, indicated high usage of meat substitute in certain brands tested. The L, a and b values of cooked chicken balls ranged between 69.61-77.96, -2.02 to 0.33 and 15.66-19.70 respectively. The hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and shear force ranged between 3.73-5.73, 0.55-0.69, 11.40- 13.71, 31.27-53.77 and 0.51-1.28, respectively. Chewiness readings obtained were between 31.27-53.77, possibly contributed by the different thickeners used in the formulations. The research result shows that Malaysian commercial chicken balls are significantly different in their chemical composition, colour and textural properties.
  Nurul Huda and Ruzita Ahmad
  The objective of this survey was to measure the Nutritional status through Body Mass Index (BMI) profile among Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) main campus students. The data was randomly collected from students around USM lecture theaters during day time. A number of 624 students (male 264 and female 360) were involved in the survey. The result showed that the mean age, weight and height among the students were 21.42±1.38 years, 55.65±12.21 kg and 163.43±8.89 cm, respectively. The mean BMI of all the samples was 20.81±3.61 kg/m2, with male students showing slightly higher BMI (21.84±4.13 kg/m2) compared to female students (20.05±2.96 kg/m2). Malay students showed the highest BMI, followed by Indian and Chinese students. The BMI’s for the Malay, Indian and Chinese students were 21.01±3.67 kg/m2, 20.80±3.72 kg/m2 and 20.43±3.19 kg/m2, respectively. Based on the BMI result, about 61% of all the samples were in the normal range, 27% were underweight and about 12% were overweight or more. A higher percentage of the female students were in the underweight category (33%) compared to the male students (20%). Based on race, about 63% of the Malay students were normal weight, 25% were underweight and 12% in the overweight or more category. For the Chinese students, about 60% were normal weight, 30% were underweight and 10% in were in the overweight or more category. For the Indian students, about 57% were normal weight, 28% were underweight and 15% were in the overweight or more category. This preliminary data showed that there is a high percentage of underweight students among USM students. Further assessments need to be carried out to survey if these underweight students show symptoms of clinical problems related to nutritional deficiencies.
  Nurul Huda , Yap Hui Shen , Yong Lin Huey and Ratna Sari Dewi
  Fish balls are the popular value-added products in Malaysia. This study was carried out to determine quality characteristic associated with fish balls available in Malaysia markets. A total of six brands of Malaysian fish balls were collected, recorded and analyzed for list of ingredients and some physicochemical properties which include proximate composition, color and texture (folding test and Texture Profile Analysis). The results showed that there was a wide variation in the types of ingredients used in producing of fish balls. The study also reveals that there is a new trend of using surimi as substation for fish meat in Malaysian fish balls production. The price of currently fish balls varying from US$ 1.29-2.78/kg, respectively. The proximate composition from different brands of fish balls analyzed were found to be significantly different (p<0.05). The moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of fish balls samples varied between 73.80-88.71%, 7.54-9.89%, 0.13-1.75%, 1.61-3.40% and 1.17-13.58%, respectively. The color value for lightness (L), redness (a) and yellowness (b) of the fish balls also significantly different (p<0.05), ranging from 69.61 - 77.96, -2.02 - 0.33 and 15.66 - 19.70, respectively. All of samples of fish balls showed AA grade of folding test which indicated that the texture of fish balls were acceptable for consumer preference. This result showed that Malaysian fish balls produced from different manufacturers were different in ingredient used, chemical composition and color, however these differences was not effect to the folding test of the samples.
  Adzitey Frederick and Nurul Huda
  Campylobacters are Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, curved spiral or rod shaped and microaerophilic in nature. They are also oxidase and catalase positive and are unable to grow at 25°C under aerobic condition. In recent years, campylobacters have been implicated in most foodborne outbreaks and are considered important human pathogen. They are known to cause enteritis, bacteremia, endocarditis and periodontal diseases in humans and animals, and their infection can lead to chronic sequelae such as Reiter syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Poultry have been identified as a major reservoir for campylobacters. Cross contamination of campylobacters from contaminated live birds to carcasses, poultry products, the environments, other products and animals species is eminent. Nevertheless, poultry meat and products are still preferred by most people and are consumed worldwide without much traditional or religious restriction. Furthermore poultry meat is considered healthier, due to their lower fat content compared to ruminants. Other sources of campylobacters such as wild birds, rabbits, birds, insects, sheep, horses, cows, pigs, domestic pets, vegetables, shellfish and water have also been recognised. Consumer awareness for food safety is increasing and consequently the demand for poultry meats that are free from pathogenic organisms. A discussion on campylobacter and its association with poultry is important to create more awareness on need to reduce campylobacter colonisation in poultry, transmission, cross contaminations and infections.
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