Research Article
ELISA and RT-PCR Based Detection of Bovine Coronavirus in Northern India

A. Hansa, R.B. Rai, M. Yaqoob Wani and K. Dhama

Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 2012, 7(11), 1120-1129.

Abstract

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread in cattle population, resulting in heavy economic losses to both dairy and beef industry throughout the world. The syndromes associated with BCoV include winter dysentery in adult dairy cattle and respiratory and intestinal tract infections in young calves. The virus has specific tropism for intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cells. Reports regarding prevalence and molecular detection of BCoV from India are scarce. In this study, 101 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrheic calves from North Indian region covering three dairy farms of Uttar Pradesh and dead calves of post mortem facility of Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Fecal samples from all the cases were screened for the presence of BCoV by commercially available ELISA kit. Furthermore, all samples were subjected to RT-PCR for detection and confirmation BCoV. RT-PCR was carried out using two different sets of primers to amplify the conserved nucleocapsid (N) gene of the virus targeting a 407 and 730 bp fragments. An incidence rate of more than 14% (15/101) was observed with ELISA and about 20% (20/101) by RT-PCR. The present report is first in its nature regarding the detection of BCoV at molecular level in India. In conclusion, RT-PCR was found more sensitive than commercial ELISA kit for detecting BCoV in fecal samples. Further extensive epidemiological studies are suggested for the virus in the country to know the magnitude of BCoV infection in dairy calves along with isolation of viral strains and to investigate their antigenic and genetic properties.

ASCI-ID: 13-557

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