Search. Read. Cite.

Easy to search. Easy to read. Easy to cite with credible sources.

Research Article
Microbial Detheobromination of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Pod Husk

N.A. Adamafio, F. Ayombil and K. Tano-Debrah

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, 2011, 6(2), 200-207.

Abstract

Cocoa pod husk, when used in animal feed, exerts certain detrimental effects on animal health at high dietary intake, due to the high concentrations of theobromine. The chemical methods for detheobromination are not feasible in conventional agricultural practice and, therefore, are not used by local farmers. This study investigated the biodegradation of theobromine in cocoa pod husk (bio-detheobromination). Milled cocoa pod husk samples, sterilized and unsterilized, were treated and incubated for 7 days and the theobromine content followed during the period titrimetrically at 24 h intervals. A 54.7% reduction in theobromine content (p<0.05) was observed after 5 days. The microflora of the cocoa pod husk was analyzed to determine the microbial species associated with the detheobromination. Using a 4% selective theobromine medium, in which theobromine was the sole carbon and nitrogen source, Aspergillus niger was identified as the only microorganism present capable of metabolizing theobromine. Treatment of sterilized cocoa pod husk with A. niger for 7 days resulted in a 71.8% reduction in theobromine content (p<0.05). The observations suggest that fermentation of cocoa pod husk may be a useful procedure for reducing the theobromine content of cocoa pod husk to levels safe for livestock consumption.

ASCI-ID: 16-222

Cited References Fulltext

Related Articles


Ethanol Production from Carica papaya (Pawpaw) Fruit Waste

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, 2008, 3(3), 188-193.

Advanced Control Technique for Substrate Feed Rate Regulation of a Fed Batch Fermentation

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, 2012, 7(1), 1-15.

Chemical Characterization of Enzymatically Treated Morinda Juice

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, 2016, 11(1), 14-23.

Cited By


Biosorption of Cd(II) From Aqueous Solution by Cocoa Pod Husk Biomass: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Studies

Separation Science and Technology, 2012, 47(5), 753. DOI: 10.1080/01496395.2011.626829

Solid-state fermentation as a tool for methylxanthine reduction and simultaneous xylanase production in cocoa meal

Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 2017, 11(), 34. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.05.009

Isolation and characterisation of theobromine-degrading filamentous fungi

Microbiological Research, 2018, 206(), 16. DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2017.09.006

Bio-detheobromination of cocoa pod husks: reduction of ochratoxin A content without change in nutrient profile

Microbial Cell Factories, 2018, 17(1), . DOI: 10.1186/s12934-018-0931-x

Design and Modelling of Automated Reactor for the Production of Caustic Potash from Cocoa Pod Husk

Procedia CIRP, 2019, 84(), 960. DOI: 10.1016/j.procir.2019.03.201

Nutritional value and safety of animal feed supplemented with Talaromyces verruculosus-treated cocoa pod husks

Scientific Reports, 2020, 10(1), . DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-69763-9