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Research Article
Evaluation of Combining Ability and Heterosis for Yield and its Components Traits of Five Maize Inbreds under Normal and Stress Nitrogen Fertilization

M.A. Abdel-Moneam, M.S. Sultan, S.M.G. Salama and A.M. El Oraby

Asian Journal of Crop Science, 2014, 6(2), 142-149.

Abstract

A half diallel cross among 5 inbred lines of maize was evaluated under two different nitrogen rates for yield and yield components characters i.e., ears No. plant-1, ear length, ear diameter, 100-kernel weight, grain yield plant-1 and shelling percentage to evaluate the role of GCA and SCA of inbred lines in hybrids performance under normal and stress of nitrogen levels and to establish the magnitude of heterosis. Mean squares of genotypes were highly significant for all studied traits under both nitrogen levels, except shelling percentage under normal nitrogen level. General and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) mean squares were significant or highly significant for all studied traits, except shelling percentage under normal nitrogen level at GCA and SCA. GCA/SCA ratios revealed that the non-additive gene action for all studied traits under both nitrogen levels was detected. The best combiners were P4 (Inb.204) and P5 (Inb.213) for most of studied traits under normal and stress nitrogen levels. This result indicated that these inbred lines could be considered as good combiners for improving these traits. The best crosses for ears No. plant-1 were P1 (Inb.84) xP3 (Inb.144) and P3 (Inb.144) xP4 (Inb.204), for ear length was P2 (Inb.95) xP4 (Inb.204), for ear diameter was P1 (Inb.84) xP5 (Inb.213), for 100-kernel weight was P2 (Inb.95) xP4 (Inb.204) and for grain yield plant-1 was P1 (Inb.84) xP3 (Inb.144) under both nitrogen levels. These crosses could be selected and used in breeding programs for improving these traits. Results showed significant or highly significant heterosis over mid or better parents for all studied traits, except shelling percentage under normal nitrogen level. The best crosses over both their mid-parents and better-parent for ears No. plant-1 was P3 (Inb.144) xP4 (Inb.204), for ear length was P2 (Inb.95) xP4 (Inb.204), for ear diameter was P1 (Inb.84) xP5 (Inb.213), for 100-kernel weight was P2 (Inb.95) xP4 (Inb.204), for grain yield plant-1 was P1 (Inb.84) xP3 (Inb.144) under both nitrogen levels and for shelling percentage was P1 (Inb.84) xP3 (Inb.144) under stress nitrogen level.

ASCI-ID: 4-143

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