Research Article
An FTO variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations after accounting for body mass index and waist circumference

S. D. Rees, M. Islam, M. Z. I. Hydrie, B. Chaudhary, S. Bellary, S. Hashmi, J. P. O`Hare, S. Kumar, D. K. Sanghera, N. Chaturvedi, A. H. Barnett, A. S. Shera, M. N. Weedon, A. Basit, T. M. Frayling, M. A. Kelly and T. H. Jafar

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(6), 673-680. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03257.x

Abstract

Aims  A common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the association of the FTO rs9939609 variant with obesity, obesity-related traits and Type 2 diabetes in South Asian individuals, and to use meta-analyses to attempt to clarify to what extent BMI influences the association of FTO variants with diabetes in South Asians.

Methods  We analysed rs9939609 in two studies of Pakistani individuals: 1666 adults aged ≥ 40 years from the Karachi population-based Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study and 2745 individuals of Punjabi ancestry who were part of a Type 2 diabetes case-control study (UK Asian Diabetes Study/Diabetes Genetics in Pakistan; UKADS/DGP). The main outcomes were BMI, waist circumference and diabetes. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations between FTO alleles and outcomes. Summary estimates were combined in a meta-analysis of 8091 South Asian individuals (3919 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 4172 control subjects), including those from two previous studies.

Results  In the 4411 Pakistani individuals from this study, the age-, sex- and diabetes-adjusted association of FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI was 0.45 (95% CI 0.24-0.67) kg/m2 per A-allele (= 3.0 x 10−5) and with waist circumference was 0.88 (95% CI 0.36-1.41) cm per A-allele (= 0.001). The A-allele (30% frequency) was also significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes [per A-allele odds ratio (95% CI) 1.18 (1.07-1.30); = 0.0009]. A meta-analysis of four South Asian studies with 8091 subjects showed that the FTO A-allele predisposes to Type 2 diabetes [1.22 (95% CI 1.14-1.31); = 1.07 x 10-8] even after adjusting for BMI [1.18 (95% CI 1.10-1.27); = 1.02 x 10-5] or waist circumference [1.18 (95% CI 1.10-1.27); = 3.97 x 10−5].

Conclusions  The strong association between FTO genotype and BMI and waist circumference in South Asians is similar to that observed in Europeans. In contrast, the strong association of FTO genotype with diabetes is only partly accounted for by BMI.

ASCI-ID: 109-846

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Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(9), 872-879. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02788.x

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(9), 900-907. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02798.x

Carotid intima-media thickness and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio in middle-aged patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(4), 384-390. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02693.x

The threshold for definition of impaired fasting glucose in a Japanese population

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(11), 1175-1178. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02850.x

A comparison of efficacy and safety of vildagliptin and gliclazide in combination with metformin in patients with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin alone: a 52-week, randomized study

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(3), 318-326. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02938.x

Ramadan Education and Awareness in Diabetes (READ) programme for Muslims with Type 2 diabetes who fast during Ramadan

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(3), 327-331. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02948.x

Type 2 diabetes in Canada: concentration of risk among most disadvantaged men but inverse social gradient across groups in women

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(5), 522-531. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02982.x

Safety and tolerability of high doses of taspoglutide, a once-weekly human GLP-1 analogue, in diabetic patients treated with metformin: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(5), 556-562. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02990.x

First diabetes prevalence study in Portugal: PREVADIAB study

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(8), 879-881. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03017.x

Perceived risk of Type 2 diabetes in Australian women with a recent history of gestational diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(8), 882-886. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03032.x

Painful foot drop; a presentation of diabetic muscle infarction

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(8), 958-959. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03060.x

Depressive symptoms in the first year from diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes: results from the DESMOND trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(8), 965-967. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03028.x

Who attends a UK diabetes screening programme? Findings from the ADDITION-Cambridge study

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(9), 995-1003. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03056.x

Safe and rapid resolution of severe hypertriglyceridaemia in two patients with intravenous insulin

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(9), 1080-1083. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03036.x

Metformin action on AMP-activated protein kinase: a translational research approach to understanding a potential new therapeutic target

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(10), 1097-1106. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03098.x

Are there differences in cardiovascular and metabolic risk profiles among men and women with Type 2 diabetes? A cross-sectional analysis

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(10), 1212-1214. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03077.x

Risk equations to predict life expectancy of people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus following major complications: a study from Western Australia

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 428-435. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03189.x

High sodium and low potassium intake in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(12), 1401-1408. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03111.x

Association of the POU class 2 homeobox 1 gene (POU2F1) with susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes in Chinese populations

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(12), 1443-1449. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03124.x

A 12-year follow-up study of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among 10 532 people newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in Tayside, Scotland

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(10), 1124-1129. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03075.x

Associations between leptin and the leptin / adiponectin ratio and incident Type 2 diabetes in middle-aged men and women: results from the MONICA / KORA Augsburg Study 1984-2002

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(9), 1004-1011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03043.x

Dose-dependent effects of the once-daily GLP-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide in patients with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(9), 1024-1032. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03020.x

Nurse-led clinics for strict hypertension control are effective long term: a 7 year follow-up study

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(8), 933-937. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03039.x

One-year follow-up of untreated obese white children and adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance: high conversion rate to normal glucose tolerance

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(5), 516-521. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02991.x

The relationship between self-monitored blood glucose values and glycated haemoglobin in insulin-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(5), 589-592. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02955.x

Daytime variability of postprandial glucose tolerance and pancreatic B-cell function using 12-h profiles in persons with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(3), 266-273. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02949.x

External validation of QDSCORE® for predicting the 10-year risk of developing Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(5), 599-607. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03237.x

Oxygen (O2) kinetics during early recovery from peak exercise in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(5), 612-617. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03229.x

Obesity and Type 2 diabetes; achieving weight loss

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(6), 627-627. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03319.x

Bariatric surgery: an IDF statement for obese Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(6), 628-642. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03306.x

The association of physical inactivity with Type 2 diabetes among different ethnic groups

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(6), 668-672. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03248.x

DURATION-2: efficacy and safety of switching from maximum daily sitagliptin or pioglitazone to once-weekly exenatide

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(6), 705-714. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03301.x

Patient-reported outcomes are superior in patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide as compared with exenatide, when added to metformin, sulphonylurea or both: results from a randomized, open-label study

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(6), 715-723. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03276.x

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and urinary albumin excretion in community-based patients with Type 2 diabetes: The Fremantle Diabetes Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(7), 849-855. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03230.x

Consensus at last? The International Diabetes Federation statement on bariatric surgery in the treatment of obese Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(8), 884-885. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03354.x

Waist circumference and metabolic risk factors have separate and additive effects on the risk of future Type 2 diabetes in patients with vascular diseases. A cohort study

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(8), 932-940. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03318.x

Low incidence of cardiovascular events in Japanese patients with Type 2 diabetes in primary care settings: a prospective cohort study (JDDM 20)

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1221-1228. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03347.x

Psychological adjustment to Type 2 diabetes and relationship quality

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 487-492. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03214.x

Impact of a chronic care model based on patient empowerment on the management of Type 2 diabetes: effects of the SINERGIA programme

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(6), 724-730. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03253.x

Perceived challenges and priorities in co-morbidity management of older patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(7), 781-784. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03282.x

ROSES: role of self-monitoring of blood glucose and intensive education in patients with Type 2 diabetes not receiving insulin. A pilot randomized clinical trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(7), 789-796. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03268.x

Development and evaluation of a standardized registry for diabetes in pregnancy using data from the Northern, North West and East Anglia regional audits

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(7), 797-804. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03259.x

Diabetes Medication Assistance Service Stage 1: impact and sustainability of glycaemic and lipids control in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(8), 987-993. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03296.x

Evidence for a dose effect of renin-angiotensin system inhibition on progression of microalbuminuria in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1182-1187. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03341.x

Serum omentin-1 and chemerin levels are interrelated in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without ischaemic heart disease

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1194-1200. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03353.x

Impact of biomarkers for endothelial dysfunction and procoagulant state on 10-year cardiovascular risk in Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1201-1205. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03311.x

Experience of hypoglycaemia is associated with changes in beliefs about diabetes in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(11), 1395-1400. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03340.x

" style="text-decoration:none">Efficacy and safety of linagliptin in persons with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by a combination of metformin and sulphonylurea: a 24-week randomized study

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(11), 1352-1361. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03387.x

Association and evolutionary studies of the melatonin receptor 1B gene (MTNR1B) in the self-contained population of Sorbs from Germany

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(11), 1373-1380. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03374.x

Prevalence, awareness and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Switzerland: the CoLaus study

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(2), 190-197. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03422.x

Family history of diabetes and effectiveness of lifestyle counselling on the cardio-metabolic risk profile in individuals at high risk of Type 2 diabetes: 1-year follow-up of the FIN-D2D project

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(2), 207-211. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03388.x

The impact of hypoglycaemia on quality of life and related patient-reported outcomes in Type 2 diabetes: a narrative review

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(3), 293-302. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03416.x

Cost-utility analysis of liraglutide compared with sulphonylurea or sitagliptin, all as add-on to metformin monotherapy in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(3), 313-320. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03429.x

Validity of self-assessed waist circumference in a multi-ethnic UK population

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(3), 404-409. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03478.x

Increased serum concentrations of adhesion molecules but not of chemokines in patients with Type 2 diabetes compared with patients with Type 1 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adult age: Action LADA 5

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(4), 470-478. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03546.x

Estimated morbidity and mortality in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(4), 453-463. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03542.x

Seasonal variations of urinary albumin creatinine ratio in Japanese subjects with Type 2 diabetes and early nephropathy

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(4), 506-508. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03472.x

Psychological status of Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes: data review of Diabcare-China studies

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(4), 515-521. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03436.x

Dynamic cerebral autoregulation assessed by respiratory manoeuvres in non-insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(5), 609-613. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03497.x

Risk of acute renal failure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(5), 614-621. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03498.x

C-reactive protein concentration predicts mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 767-770. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03560.x

Acceptance of insulin therapy: a long shot? Psychological insulin resistance in primary care

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 796-802. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03552.x

Low glycaemic variability in subjects with Type 2 diabetes following pre-Ramadan assessment and adjustments for fasting

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 828-829. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03632.x

Costs of diabetes; new figures for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(7), 835-835. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03716.x

The cost of diagnosing Type 2 diabetes mellitus by clinical opportunistic screening in general practice

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(7), 863-868. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03607.x

Estimating the potential population impact of stepwise screening strategies for identifying and treating individuals at high risk of Type 2 diabetes: a modelling study

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(7), 893-904. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03609.x

Fasting plasma glucose 6-12 weeks after starting insulin glargine predicts likelihood of treatment success: a pooled analysis

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(7), 933-936. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03640.x

Blood glucose testing and primary prevention of Type 2 diabetes-evaluation of the effect of evidence-based patient information: a randomized controlled trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(8), 1011-1020. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03531.x

Effect of exposure to non-esterified fatty acid on progressive deterioration of insulin secretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes: a long-term follow-up study

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(8), 980-985. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03566.x

Pedometer-determined physical activity is linked to low systemic inflammation and low arterial stiffness in Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(9), 1119-1125. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03621.x

Self monitoring of glucose in Type 2 diabetes: guidelines fail to reflect evidence

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(10), 1225-1225. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03654.x

Impact of body mass index on the predictive ability of body fat distribution for Type 2 diabetes risk in Koreans

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(11), 1395-1398. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03661.x

An analysis of the relative risk for hypothyroidism in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(12), 1510-1514. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03687.x

Exenatide plus metformin compared with metformin alone on β-cell function in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(12), 1515-1523. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03699.x

Intrapersonal HbA1c variability and the risk of progression of nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(12), 1562-1566. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03767.x

Skin autofluorescence and risk of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus-a multi-centre study

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(12), 1556-1561. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12005

Primary prevention of Type 2 diabetes in South Asians - challenges and the way forward

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 26-34. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03753.x

A four-stage model explaining the higher risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Asians compared with European populations

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 35-42. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12016

Alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk of Type 2 diabetes and autoimmune diabetes in adults: results from the Nord-Trondelag health study

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 56-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03713.x

Increased dietary fruit intake was associated with lower burden of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 100-108. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03764.x

Taspoglutide, a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, vs. insulin glargine titrated to target in patients with Type 2 diabetes: an open-label randomized trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 109-113. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12003

Genetic variants of LPIN1 indicate an association with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 118-122. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03758.x

Insulin degludec improves health-related quality of life (SF-36®) compared with insulin glargine in people with Type 2 diabetes starting on basal insulin: a meta-analysis of phase 3a trials

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(2), 226-232. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12086

Banting Memorial Lecture 2012 Reversing the twin cycles of Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(3), 267-275. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12039

Longitudinal association between medication adherence and glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(3), 338-344. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12046

Stepwise intensification of insulin therapy in Type 2 diabetes management-exploring the concept of the basal-plus approach in clinical practice

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(3), 276-288. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12019

Retracted: Effects of fasting blood glucose, diabetes treatment, blood pressure and anti-hypertension treatment on cardiovascular disease incidence: a 30-year follow-up study of 740 incident patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(3), 349-357. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12106

Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes in developing and developed countries

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(4), 387-398. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12119

Real-world factors affecting adherence to insulin therapy in patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(5), 512-524. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12128

Decrease of postprandial endothelial dysfunction by spice mix added to high-fat hamburger meat in men with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(5), 590-595. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12120

The needs, concerns, and characteristics of younger Australian adults with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(5), 620-626. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12078

The effect of vildagliptin therapy on atherogenic postprandial remnant particles and LDL particle size in subjects with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(6), 756-757. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12094

Systematic review of the development, implementation and availability of smart-phone applications for assessing Type 2 diabetes risk

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(6), 758-760. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12115

A risk-adjusted economic evaluation of alternative models of involvement of practice nurses in management of type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(7), 855-863. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12195

Medical strategies to reduce amputation in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(8), 893-900. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12169

Non-linear association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the incidence of Type 2 diabetes: a community-based nested case-control study

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(8), 934-938. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12180

Preventing Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: women's experiences and implications for diabetes prevention interventions

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(8), 986-993. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12206

Objective measurements of activity patterns in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes demonstrate a sedentary lifestyle

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(9), 1063-1066. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12199

Relative contributions of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction to the development of Type 2 diabetes in Koreans

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(9), 1075-1079. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12201

Enhanced carbohydrate craving in patients with poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(9), 1080-1086. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12209

Model of care for the management of complex Type 2 diabetes managed in the community by primary care physicians with specialist support: an open controlled trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(9), 1112-1121. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12251

Projection of the burden of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Germany: a demographic modelling approach to estimate the direct medical excess costs from 2010 to 2040

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(8), 999-1008. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12177

Trends in selection and timing of first-line pharmacotherapy in older patients with Type 2 diabetes diagnosed between 1994 and 2006

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(10), 1209-1213. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12214

Investigation of known estimated glomerular filtration rate loci in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(10), 1230-1235. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12211

A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks benfotiamine treatment on postprandial vascular function and variables of autonomic nerve function in Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(10), 1204-1208. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12240

Comparison of insulin degludec with insulin glargine in insulin-naive subjects with Type 2 diabetes: a 2-year randomized, treat-to-target trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(11), 1298-1304. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12303

A randomized crossover study to assess the effect of an oat-rich diet on glycaemic control, plasma lipids and postprandial glycaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(11), 1314-1323. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12228

Urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio detects absolute insulin deficiency in Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(11), 1342-1348. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12222

Relationship between HbA1c and risk of all-cause hospital admissions among people with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1407-1411. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12235

The use of technology to promote physical activity in Type 2 diabetes management: a systematic review

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1420-1432. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12289

Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes among overweight or obese children in Tianjin, China

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1457-1465. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12269

Long-term 4-year safety of saxagliptin in drug-naive and metformin-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1472-1476. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12267

Role of proximal gut exclusion from food on glucose homeostasis in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1482-1486. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12268

Magnesium intake decreases Type 2 diabetes risk through the improvement of insulin resistance and inflammation: the Hisayama Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1487-1494. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12250

Colesevelam for Type 2 diabetes mellitus: an abridged Cochrane review

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(1), 2-14. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12295

Waist circumference is genetically correlated with incident Type 2 diabetes in Mexican-American families

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(1), 31-35. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12266

The optimal morning:evening ratio in total dose of twice-daily biphasic insulin analogue in poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes: a 24-week multi-centre prospective, randomized controlled, open-labelled clinical study

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(1), 68-75. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12322

Is it possible to develop a ‘one-size fits all’ prediction model for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes?

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(1), 116-117. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12292

Social patterning in knowledge following an informed choice invitation for Type 2 diabetes screening

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(4), 504-508. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12334

Increased intestinal permeability to oral chromium (51Cr) -EDTA in human Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 559-563. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12360

The relationship between metformin therapy and sleep quantity and quality in patients with Type 2 diabetes referred for potential sleep disorders

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 577-580. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12362

The association between BMI and hospitalization for heart failure in 83 021 persons with Type 2 diabetes: a population-based study from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 586-594. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12340

Improving quality of care in people with Type 2 diabetes through the Associazione Medici Diabetologi-annals initiative: a long-term cost-effectiveness analysis

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 615-623. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12366

Incidence of Type 2 diabetes among occupational classes in Sweden: a 35-year follow-up cohort study in middle-aged men

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(6), 674-680. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12405

Association of fasting glucose with subclinical cerebrovascular disease in older adults without Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(6), 691-698. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12385

Erectile dysfunction is a strong predictor of poor quality of life in men with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(6), 699-706. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12412

Predicting cognitive ability in ageing cohorts using Type 2 diabetes genetic risk

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(6), 714-720. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12389

Serum selenium in relation to measures of glucose metabolism and incidence of Type 2 diabetes in an older Swedish population

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 787-793. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12429

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in young adults: the extreme phenotype with early cardiovascular dysfunction

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 794-798. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12431

Short- and long-term effects of real-time medication monitoring with short message service (SMS) reminders for missed doses on the refill adherence of people with Type 2 diabetes: evidence from a randomized controlled trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 821-828. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12439

Performance of formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate in Indigenous Australians with and without Type 2 diabetes: the eGFR Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 829-838. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12426

New American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association cholesterol treatment guidelines: subjects with Type 2 diabetes are under treated with high-intensity statins

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 879-880. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12420

Colesevelam for Type 2 diabetes mellitus: an abridged Cochrane review

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 880-880. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12424

Physical activity in Type 2 diabetes: have we got it correct?

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(8), 885-885. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12526

Association of physical activity with glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk profile in 65 666 people with Type 2 diabetes from Germany and Austria

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(8), 905-912. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12438

Cardiovascular risk profiles in relation to newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes diagnosed by either glucose or HbA1c criteria in Chinese adults in Qingdao, China

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(8), 920-926. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12498

Predicting mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus after major complications: a study using Swedish National Diabetes Register data

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(8), 954-962. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12468

Sex-specific effects of naturally occurring variants in the dopamine receptor D2 locus on insulin secretion and Type 2 diabetes susceptibility

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(8), 1001-1008. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12464

Hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are not associated with decline in renal function in people with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(9), 1039-1046. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12456

Effects of fasting blood glucose levels and blood pressure and treatment of diabetes and hypertension on the incidence of cardiovascular disease: a study of 740 patients with incident Type 2 diabetes with up to 30 years' follow-up

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(9), 1055-1063. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12514

Urine and plasma metabolites predict the development of diabetic nephropathy in individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(9), 1138-1147. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12447

The influence of sex on renal function decline in people with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(9), 1121-1128. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12478