Research Article
Global variability in diabetes mellitus and its association with body weight and primary healthcare support in 49 low- and middle-income developing countries

L. Liu, X. Yin and S. Morrissey

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(8), 995-1002. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03549.x


Aims  In the absence of any previous global comparison, we examined the variability in prevalence of diabetes mellitus across 49 developing countries, and the associations of diabetes with body weight and primary healthcare support using data from the World Health Survey.

Methods  Diabetes mellitus was defined by individuals' self-report of a physician diagnosis of diabetes. BMI is the weight (kg)/the square of the height (m). Healthcare support was assessed using clinical treatment status and whether patients with diabetes followed prescribed behaviour changes to control diabetes. Associations of diabetes with BMI and diabetes treatment status were analysed cross-sectionally.

Results  A total of 215 898 participants were included in the analysis. Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes ranged from 0.27% (Mali) to 15.54% (Mauritius). Participants who were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were significantly associated with odds of having diabetes as compared with those who were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 k/m2), with corresponding values of multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of 1.15 (1.07-1.24), 1.56 (1.44-1.68) and 2.35 (2.17-2.61), respectively. The overall untreated rate of those with diabetes mellitus was 9.6% in the total sample. Patients with underweight had the highest diabetes untreated rate, followed by those with normal weight, overweight and obesity.

Conclusion  There are significant variations in prevalence of diabetes and primary healthcare support for diabetes across low- and middle-income countries. Aggressively preventing abnormal body weight and improving healthcare support may play a pivotal role in ameliorating the unfavourable epidemic of diabetes in developing countries.

ASCI-ID: 109-1106

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Mutations in MAFA and IAPP are not a common cause of monogenic diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(7), 746-748. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02758.x

A proposal for a role of HbA1c in screening for gestational diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(8), 833-834. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02777.x

Exenatide efficacy and safety: a systematic review

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(9), 837-846. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02790.x

Diabetes, healthcare cost and loss of productivity in Sweden 1987 and 2005-a register-based approach

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(9), 928-934. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02786.x

Factors contributing to terminal digital preference in 91 398 patients with diabetes mellitus in Germany and Austria: possible impact on therapeutic decisions

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(9), 947-948. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02783.x

Serological evidence of infections and Type 2 diabetes: the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(2), 149-152. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02632.x

How much might cardiovascular disease risk be reduced by intensive therapy in people with screen-detected diabetes?

Diabetic Medicine, 2008, 25(12), 1433-1439. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2008.02600.x

Low health-related quality of life is associated with all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes on haemodialysis: the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(9), 921-927. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02800.x

Emergency room visit: a red-flag indicator for poor diabetes care

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(11), 1105-1111. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02827.x

Intraepidermal nerve fibre density at wrist level in diabetic and non-diabetic patients

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(11), 1120-1126. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02823.x

Diabetes mellitus may be the earliest and sole manifestation of the H syndrome

Diabetic Medicine, 2009, 26(11), 1179-1180. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02843.x

Socio-economic and ethnic inequalities in diabetes retinal screening

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(3), 282-288. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02946.x

Plasma osteoprotegerin concentrations in peripheral sensory neuropathy in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(3), 289-294. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02940.x

Atherosclerotic disease location and disparities in the control and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(3), 303-308. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02952.x

Relationship of baseline HbA1c and efficacy of current glucose-lowering therapies: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(3), 309-317. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02941.x

Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in 35-59-year-old individuals in Southern Germany: the KORA F4 Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(3), 360-362. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02905.x

HbA1c for diabetes diagnosis. Are we ready?

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(3), 367-368. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02942.x

Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome: what are the risks and can they be reduced?

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(5), 498-515. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02994.x

One-year follow-up of untreated obese white children and adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance: high conversion rate to normal glucose tolerance

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(5), 516-521. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02991.x

Relationship between chronic kidney disease and silent cerebral infarction in patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(5), 538-543. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02922.x

A systematic review of scoring systems for diabetic foot ulcers

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(5), 544-549. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02989.x

Do the Joint British Society (JBS2) guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease with respect to plasma glucose improve risk stratification in the general population? Prospective cohort study

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(5), 550-555. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02921.x

Recurrent diabetic ketoalkalosis in a patient with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and severe gastroparesis

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(5), 607-608. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02988.x

Diabetes and mental health; the problem of co-morbidity

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(8), 853-854. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03067.x

The Diabetes UK Mozambique Twinning Programme. Results of improvements in diabetes care in Mozambique: a reassessment 6 years later using the Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(8), 855-861. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03053.x

Glycaemic variability using continuous glucose monitoring and endothelial function in the metabolic syndrome and in Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(8), 872-878. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03059.x

The prevalence of depressive symptoms in a white European and South Asian population with impaired glucose regulation and screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a comparison of two screening tools

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(8), 896-905. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03042.x

Estimation of primary care treatment costs and treatment efficacy for people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(8), 938-948. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03040.x

Diabetes: costs and cost-effectiveness

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(9), 971-972. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03101.x

Diabetes in the UK: time for a reality check?

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(9), 973-976. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03100.x

Systematic review of the association between lung function and Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(9), 977-987. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03073.x

The views of patients with diabetes about nurse prescribing

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(9), 1049-1054. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03051.x

Estimated costs of acute hospital care for people with diabetes in the United Kingdom: a routine record linkage study in a large region

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(9), 1066-1073. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03086.x

Driving and insulin-treated diabetes: comparing practices in Scotland and New Zealand

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(9), 1093-1095. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03084.x

Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in the Tromso Study 1994-95 and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus during 11 years of follow-up

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(10), 1107-1115. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03092.x

Reduced incidence of blindness in relation to diabetes mellitus in southern Germany?

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(10), 1138-1143. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03081.x

Glycated haemoglobin and blood pressure-lowering effect of cinnamon in multi-ethnic Type 2 diabetic patients in the UK: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(10), 1159-1167. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03079.x

Investigation of ACE, ACE2 and AGTR1 genes for association with nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(10), 1188-1194. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03097.x

Meeting the psychosocial needs of children with diabetes within routine clinical practice

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(10), 1209-1211. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03071.x

Glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: don't forget the performance of the HbA1c assay

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(10), 1214-1215. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03088.x

Medical information about diabetes-how to keep up to date

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(12), 1335-1340. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03129.x

The effect of diabetes mellitus on age-associated lean mass loss in 3153 older adults

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(12), 1366-1371. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03118.x

Improvement in pregnancy-related outcomes in the offspring of diabetic mothers in Bavaria, Germany, during 1987-2007

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(12), 1379-1384. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03109.x

An exploration of knowledge and attitudes related to pre-pregnancy care in women with diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(12), 1385-1391. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03117.x

The effects of rosiglitazone on atherosclerotic progression in patients with Type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk

Diabetic Medicine, 2010, 27(12), 1392-1400. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03089.x

The implications of the new International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 382-385. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03236.x

The use of the EQ-5D preference-based health status measure in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 395-413. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03136.x

Maximizing efficiency and cost-effectiveness of Type 2 diabetes screening: the AusDiab study

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 414-423. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03188.x

Influence of blood glucose on heart rate and cardiac autonomic function. The DESIR study

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 440-449. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03222.x

Real-time continuous glucose monitoring system for treatment of diabetes: a systematic review

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 386-394. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03177.x

Effect of mobile phone intervention for diabetes on glycaemic control: a meta-analysis

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 455-463. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03180.x

Motivational enhancement therapy with and without cognitive behaviour therapy for Type 1 diabetes: economic evaluation from a randomized controlled trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 470-479. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03198.x

Association of metabolic syndrome and diabetes with subclinical coronary stenosis and plaque subtypes in middle-aged individuals

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 493-499. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03213.x

Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in Estonia

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(4), 504-505. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03218.x

What would be the outcome if the American Diabetes Association recommendations of 2010 had been followed in our pratice in 1998-2006?

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(5), 567-574. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03215.x

The Association of Public Health Observatories (APHO) Diabetes Prevalence Model: estimates of total diabetes prevalence for England, 2010-2030

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(5), 575-582. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03216.x

History of foot ulcers increases mortality among patients with diabetes in Northern Thailand

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(5), 608-611. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03262.x

Sequencing PDX1 (insulin promoter factor 1) in 1788 UK individuals found 5% had a low frequency coding variant, but these variants are not associated with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(6), 681-684. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03269.x

Maternal endothelial dysfunction and its association with abnormal fetal growth in diabetic pregnancy

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(6), 692-698. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03249.x

Diabetes and the older person

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(7), 757-757. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03334.x

A call for action in diabetes care for older people

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(7), 757-758. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03335.x

Good clinical practice guidelines for care home residents with diabetes: an executive summary

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(7), 772-777. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03320.x

People living with diabetes resident in nursing homes-assessing levels of disability and nursing needs

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(7), 778-780. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03261.x

The association between anxiety and measures of glycaemia in a population-based diabetes screening programme

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(7), 785-788. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03245.x

High oolong tea consumption predicts future risk of diabetes among Japanese male workers: a prospective cohort study

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(7), 805-810. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03239.x

Metabolic syndrome and future risk of diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(8), 883-883. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03369.x

Metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose and obesity, as predictors of incident diabetes in 14 120 hypertensive patients of ASCOT-BPLA: comparison of their relative predictability using a novel approach

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(8), 941-947. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03330.x

Lower extremity amputations - a review of global variability in incidence

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1144-1153. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03279.x

Intensive management of hyperglycaemia in acute coronary syndromes. Study design and rationale of the BIOMArCS 2 glucose trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1168-1175. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03307.x

Prognostic impact of electrocardiographic signs in patients with Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: results from the PROactive study

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1206-1212. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03281.x

A new model for 5-year risk of cardiovascular disease in Type 1 diabetes; from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR)

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1213-1220. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03342.x

The Pre-diabetes Risk Education and Physical Activity Recommendation and Encouragement (PREPARE) programme study: are improvements in glucose regulation sustained at 2 years?

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1268-1271. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03357.x

Decreased levels of soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in the conjunctival sac fluid of patients with diabetes affected by proliferative retinopathy

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1277-1278. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03202.x

Understanding Diabetes and Endocrinology-A Problem-Orientated Approach

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(10), 1280-1280. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03355.x

Diabetes UK evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(11), 1282-1288. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03371.x

Diabetes-science, serendipity and common sense

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(11), 1289-1299. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03396.x

Illness perceptions and glycaemic control in diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(11), 1300-1310. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03298.x

Exclusion of patients from quality measurement of diabetes care in the UK pay-for-performance programme

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(5), 525-531. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03251.x

HbA1c in adults without known diabetes from southern Europe. Impact of the new diagnostic criteria in clinical practice

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(11), 1319-1322. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03317.x

Vibrotactile sense in patients with diabetes and carpal tunnel syndrome

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(11), 1401-1406. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03308.x

Diabetes mellitus: Its differentiation into insulin-sensitive and insulin-insensitive types

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(12), 1440-1444. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.3508.x

Current perspectives of insulin resistance and polycystic ovary syndrome

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(12), 1445-1454. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03460.x

Mechanistic insights into insulin resistance in the genetic era

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(12), 1476-1486. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03463.x

Commissioning specialist diabetes services for adults with diabetes: summary of a Diabetes UK Task and Finish Group report

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(12), 1494-1500. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03410.x

The current status of diabetes professional educational standards and competencies in the UK-a Position Statement from the Diabetes UK Healthcare Professional Education Competency Framework Task and Finish Group

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(12), 1501-1507. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03411.x

Assessment of the under-reporting of diabetes in hospital admission data: a study from the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(12), 1514-1519. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03432.x

HbA1c 3 months after diagnosis predicts premature mortality in patients with new onset type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(12), 1520-1524. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03443.x

Diabetes medication patient safety incident reports to the National Reporting and Learning Service: the care home setting

Diabetic Medicine, 2011, 28(12), 1537-1540. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03421.x

Type 2 diabetes, metformin and lactic acidosis-defining the risk and promoting safe practice

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(2), 161-163. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03469.x

Screening tools used for measuring depression among people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(2), 164-175. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03401.x

Metformin-associated lactic acidosis following acute kidney injury. Efficacious treatment with continuous renal replacement therapy

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(2), 245-250. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03474.x

Establishing an evidence base for frequency of monitoring glycated haemoglobin levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes: projections of effectiveness from a regression model

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(2), 266-271. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03412.x

QTc prolongation and diabetes therapies

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(3), 290-292. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03520.x

Prevalence, incidence and mortality of diagnosed diabetes: evidence from an Italian population-based study

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(3), 385-392. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03446.x

Impaired fasting glucose, ancestry and waist-to-height ratio: main predictors of incident diagnosed diabetes in the Canary Islands

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(3), 399-403. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03420.x

Is maternal educational level a risk factor for gestational diabetes in Caucasian women?

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(3), 416-417. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03484.x

NHS Diabetes guideline for the perioperative management of the adult patient with diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(4), 420-433. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03582.x

Skin autofluorescence is associated with severity of vascular complications in Japanese patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(4), 492-500. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03448.x

Risk of depression in diabetes is highest for young persons using oral anti-diabetic agents

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(4), 509-514. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03530.x

Intensive multifactorial intervention improves modelled coronary heart disease risk in screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cluster randomized controlled trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(4), 531-540. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03441.x

Approval times for a multi-centre diabetes study in UK primary care

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(4), 554-555. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03468.x

Validation of DN4 as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in painful diabetic polyneuropathy

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(5), 578-585. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03500.x

Physical activity, family history of diabetes and risk of developing hyperglycaemia and diabetes among adults in Mainland China

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(5), 593-599. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03495.x

The role of BMI across the life course in the relationship between age at menarche and diabetes, in a British Birth Cohort

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(5), 600-603. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03489.x

Differences in the quality of diabetes care caused by social inequalities disappear after treatment and education in a tertiary care centre

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(5), 640-645. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03455.x

Social support and self-management behaviour among patients with Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(5), 654-661. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03485.x

Effective treatment of diabetes caused by activating ABCC8/SUR1 mutation with glimepiride

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(5), 692-693. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03487.x

Fasting, Ramadan and Diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 695-695. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03695.x

Summer-winter switching of the Ramadan fasts in people with diabetes living in temperate regions

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 696-697. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03519.x

Clinical decision support systems in the care of inpatients with diabetes in non-critical care setting: systematic review

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 698-708. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03540.x

Ramadan Prospective Diabetes Study: the role of drug dosage and timing alteration, active glucose monitoring and patient education

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 709-715. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03563.x

Serum uric acid is related to cardiovascular events and correlates with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and albuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 721-725. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03515.x

Changing healthcare utilization patterns in diabetes mellitus: case-control studies 1 year and 8 years after diagnosis

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 784-791. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03514.x

Self-monitoring of blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes: cross-sectional analyses in 1993, 1999 and 2009

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 792-795. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03567.x

Recurrence of the acute Charcot foot in diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 819-821. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03539.x

Death rate of residents with diabetes in nursing homes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 829-830. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03511.x

Length of hospital stay is shorter in black and ethnic minority patients with diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(6), 830-831. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03512.x

Estimating the current and future costs of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in the UK, including direct health costs and indirect societal and productivity costs

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(7), 855-862. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03698.x

Preferences of people with diabetes for diabetic retinopathy screening: a discrete choice experiment

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(7), 869-877. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03636.x

Effect of screening for Type 2 diabetes on population-level self-rated health outcomes and measures of cardiovascular risk: 13-year follow-up of the Ely cohort

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(7), 886-892. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03570.x

Haemoglobin A1c cut-off point to identify a high risk group of future diabetes: results from the Omiya MA Cohort Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(7), 905-910. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03572.x

Evaluation of a DVD for women with diabetes: impact on knowledge and attitudes to preconception care

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(7), 950-956. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03650.x

Indicators of self-rated health in the Canadian population with diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(8), 1021-1028. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03571.x

The risk of overall mortality in patients with Type 2 diabetes receiving different combinations of sulfonylureas and metformin: a retrospective analysis

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(8), 1029-1035. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03577.x

Pancreatic exocrine function in patients with diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(8), 1047-1054. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03597.x

Hyperglycaemia monitoring and management in stroke care: policy vs. practice

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(9), 1108-1114. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03693.x

Blood pressure control among patients with hypertension and newly diagnosed diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(9), 1126-1133. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03548.x

Which aspects of executive dysfunction influence ability to manage diabetes in older adults?

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(9), 1171-1177. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03606.x

Prevalence of haematuria positively associated with urine albumin excretion in Type 2 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(9), 1178-1183. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03608.x

What can be learned about the impact of diabetes on hospital admissions from routinely recorded data?

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(9), 1199-1205. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03535.x

The impact of culturally competent diabetes care interventions for improving diabetes-related outcomes in ethnic minority groups: a systematic review

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(10), 1237-1252. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03701.x

Marked vitamin D deficiency in patients with diabetes in the UK: ethnic and seasonal differences and an association with dyslipidaemia

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(10), 1343-1345. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03692.x

Finally, a UK consensus on the use of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(11), 1349-1349. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12011

Psychosocial support for people with diabetes: past, present and future

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(11), 1358-1360. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03727.x

What is the effect of peer support on diabetes outcomes in adults? A systematic review

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(11), 1361-1377. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03749.x

Diabetes diagnosis and autopsy

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(11), 1470-1471. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03642.x

An alternative to a 10-g monofilament or tuning fork? Two new, simple, easy-to-use screening tests for determining foot ulcer risk in people with diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(12), 1477-1479. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03731.x

Common variants in genes encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and its receptors (ADIPOR1/2), adiponectin concentrations, and diabetes incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program

Diabetic Medicine, 2012, 29(12), 1579-1588. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03662.x

Diabetes prevention: NICE opportunity for implementing programmes in the real-world setting

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 1-2. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12042

Can diabetes prevention programmes be translated effectively into real-world settings and still deliver improved outcomes? A synthesis of evidence

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 3-15. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12018

Should diabetes retinal screening intervals change?

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 43-45. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03752.x

Diabetes incidence does not differ between subjects with and without high depressive symptoms - 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 65-69. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03724.x

Low BMI at age 20 years predicts gestational diabetes independent of BMI in early pregnancy in Japan: Tanaka Women's Clinic Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 70-73. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03712.x

Assessing the impact of diabetes on the quality of life of older adults living in a care home: validation of the ADDQoL Senior

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 74-80. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03748.x

Screening for depression and diabetes-related distress in a diabetes outpatient clinic

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 88-94. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12001

Area-under-the-HbA1c-curve above the normal range and the prediction of microvascular outcomes: an analysis of data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 95-99. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12004

HNF1B deletions in patients with young-onset diabetes but no known renal disease

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(1), 114-117. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03709.x

The broad clinical phenotype of Type 1 diabetes at presentation

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(2), 170-178. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12048

The burden of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in an urban population of Sri Lanka

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(3), 326-332. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12013

Care of children with diabetes as inpatients: frequency of admissions, clinical care and patient experience

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(3), 363-369. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12059

Ethnicity and social deprivation and its influence on diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(4), 385-386. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12162

Barriers to self-management of diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(4), 413-420. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12105

Higher heart rate increases risk of diabetes among men: The Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(4), 421-427. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12045

Assessment of the fatty liver index as an indicator of hepatic steatosis for predicting incident diabetes independently of insulin resistance in a Korean population

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(4), 428-435. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12104

Risk scores for diabetes and impaired glycaemia in the Middle East and North Africa

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(4), 443-451. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12118

The clinical significance of overt diabetes in pregnancy

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(4), 468-474. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12110

Deprivation and ethnicity impact on diabetes control and use of treatment regimen

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(4), 491-494. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12023

Impact of diabetes mellitus onset on sickness absence from work - a 15-year follow-up of the GAZEL Occupational Cohort Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(5), 549-556. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12076

Family involvement with the diabetes regimen in young people: the role of adolescent depressive symptoms

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(5), 596-602. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12117

Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose metabolism in younger ‘at risk’ UK adults: insights from the STAND programme of research

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(6), 671-675. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12173

Determining in-patient diabetes treatment satisfaction in the UK-the DIPSat study

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(6), 731-738. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12095

Can computerized clinical decision support systems improve diabetes management? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(6), 739-745. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12087

Beyond the data: moving towards a new DAWN in diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(7), 765-766. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12244

Prevalence of diabetes in Malaysia and usefulness of HbA1c as a diagnostic criterion

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(7), 825-828. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12161

Liver enzymes, race, gender and diabetes risk: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(8), 926-933. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12187

Comparing patient-generated blood glucose diary records with meter memory in diabetes: a systematic review

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(8), 901-913. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12130

The utility of retinal screening in gestational diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(8), 1009-1010. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12152

The National Pregnancy in Diabetes Audit: measuring the quality of diabetes pregnancy care

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(9), 1014-1016. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12277

Realist review to understand the efficacy of culturally appropriate diabetes education programmes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(9), 1017-1025. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12188

Validation of the German Diabetes Risk Score within a population-based representative cohort

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(9), 1047-1053. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12216

The roadmap to close the gap for vision-diabetes-related eye care in the Indigenous Australian population

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(9), 1145-1146. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12215

GLP-1-based diabetes therapies; trial by media

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(10), 1147-1147. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12299

Diminishing differences in treatment between patients with colorectal cancer with and without diabetes: a population-based study

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(10), 1181-1188. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12253

Differences in post-mortem findings after stillbirth in women with and without diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(10), 1219-1224. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12272

Patient time costs attributable to healthcare use in diabetes: results from the population-based KORA survey in Germany

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(10), 1245-1249. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12263

Excess mortality during hospital stays among patients with recorded diabetes compared with those without diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1393-1402. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12282

Gestational diabetes predicts the risk of childhood overweight and abdominal circumference independent of maternal obesity

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1449-1456. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12286

Hepcidin levels in diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1495-1499. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12262

Effect of a gestational diabetes management programme on weight after pregnancy

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1508-1509. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12302

Diurnal temporal patterns of hypoglycaemia in hospitalized people with diabetes may reveal potentially correctable factors

Diabetic Medicine, 2013, 30(12), 1403-1406. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12256

The variable faces of monogenic diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(1), 1-1. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12364

Lost in translation-the role of family in interventions among adults with diabetes: a systematic review

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(1), 15-23. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12290

Impact of continuous glucose monitoring on diabetes management and marital relationships of adults with Type 1 diabetes and their spouses: a qualitative study

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(1), 47-54. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12276

Diabetes-Oriented Learning Family Intervention (DOLFIN): a feasibility study evaluating an intervention for carers of young persons with Type 1 diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(1), 55-60. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12333

Changes in diet, cardiovascular risk factors and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(2), 148-155. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12316

Early elevation of albumin excretion rate is associated with poor gluten-free diet adherence in young people with coeliac disease and diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(2), 208-212. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12329

Severe obesity and diabetes self-care attitudes, behaviours and burden: implications for weight management from a matched case-controlled study. Results from Diabetes MILES-Australia

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(2), 232-240. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12306

Emotional burden of diabetes is comparable among recently diagnosed and previously diagnosed patients. An observation related to the DAWN2 study results

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(2), 247-248. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12323

Medical and psychological outcomes for young adults with Type 1 diabetes: no improvement despite recent advances in diabetes care

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(2), 227-231. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12305

Diabetes and Pregnancy

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(3), 251-251. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12398

Trying to understand gestational diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(3), 273-281. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12381

Maternal outcomes and follow-up after gestational diabetes mellitus

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(3), 292-301. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12382

Diabetes and pregnancy: perspectives from Asia

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(3), 302-318. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12396

Audit and good diabetes practice

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(4), 381-381. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12417

Serum ferritin level is higher in poorly controlled patients with Type 2 diabetes and people without diabetes, aged over 55 years

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(4), 419-424. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12343

Positivity for islet cell autoantibodies in patients with monogenic diabetes is associated with later diabetes onset and higher HbA1c level

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(4), 466-471. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12314

Diabetes, sleep and metformin

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 509-509. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12433

What is the current prevalence of diagnosed and yet to be diagnosed diabetes in the UK

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 510-511. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12397

Pancreas transplantation: a treatment option for people with diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 512-521. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12373

Kaleidoscope model of diabetes care: time for a rethink?

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 522-530. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12400

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration does not independently predict incident diabetes in older women

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 564-569. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12368

Drug treatment for diabetes in nursing home residents

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 570-576. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12354

The association between BMI and hospitalization for heart failure in 83 021 persons with Type 2 diabetes: a population-based study from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(5), 586-594. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12340

Statins and diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(6), 639-639. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12463

Impact of underlying diabetes and presence of lung cavities on treatment outcomes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(6), 707-713. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12414

Screening of diabetes of youth for hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 mutations: clinical phenotype of HNF1β-related maturity-onset diabetes of the young and HNF1α-related maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Japanese

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(6), 721-727. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12416

Coffee: friend or foe for diabetes risk?

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 763-763. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12505

The confusing tale of depression and distress in patients with diabetes: a call for greater clarity and precision

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 764-772. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12428

Coffee consumption and the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults-results from a Swedish case-control study

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 799-805. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12469

Diagnostic values of different definitions of metabolic syndrome to detect poor health status in Iranian adults without diabetes

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 854-861. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12443

Impact of socio-economic status on breast cancer screening in women with diabetes: a population-based study

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(7), 806-812. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12422

Prediction of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women from the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity (UPBEAT) pilot trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(8), 963-970. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12482

Effectiveness of a group diabetes education programme in under-served communities in South Africa: a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(8), 987-993. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12475

Pre-conception and diabetes: are we doing enough?

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(9), 1021-1021. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12549

New National Diabetes Footcare Audit of England and Wales

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(9), 1022-1023. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12489

Perinatal outcome in relation to fetal sex in offspring to mothers with pre-gestational and gestational diabetes-a population-based study

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(9), 1047-1054. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12479

The Endocrine Society Diabetes and Pregnancy guidelines: a critical appraisal

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(9), 1148-1149. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12520

Diabetes autoantibodies do not predict progression to diabetes in adults: the Diabetes Prevention Program

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(9), 1064-1068. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12437

Polypharmacy in people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is justified by current guidelines-a comprehensive assessment of drug prescriptions in patients needing inpatient treatment for diabetes-associated problems

Diabetic Medicine, 2014, 31(9), 1078-1085. DOI: 10.1111/dme.12497