Characterization and Chemical Composition of the Fixed Oil of Fourteen Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Accessions Grown in Sudan
Azhari H. Nour,
Salah A. Elhussein,
Nour A. Osman
Abduelrahman H. Nour
International Journal of Chemical Technology,
2009, 1(2), 52-58.
Oil content, fatty acid composition and lipid profile of seed oils of fourteen basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) accessions grown in Sudan were determined. The accessions included wild basil (one accession), two accessions introduced from Germany and one from UAE. The rest (ten) represent basils grown in Sudan as ornamental plants. All were collected as seeds and grown at the University of Gezira farm. The fixed oil components were separated by TLC and GLC. Chemical variability among the fixed oils of Sudanese basils was extremely broad. Seed oil content varied from 8.8 to 30%. The major acylated fatty acids were palmitic (5-13%), stearic (2-3%), oleic (6-10%), linoleic (12-32%) and linolenic acid (49-75%). Linolenic acid, desirable for the potential industrial use of the oil as a drying oil, is high as 75% in seeds of the abundant wild-type of basil; this accession contains high proportion compared to world-wide basils. These results shown basil seed oil especially wild-type appears suitable to be used for industrial purposes. This is promising since seeds of the wild plant, an annual that spontaneously grows during the rainy season in many parts of Sudan, can be cheaply collected in abundance. However, certain accessions e.g., No. 11 contain other constituents such as sterols this may warrant further research.
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