Review Article
Manufacturing and Quality of Mozzarella Cheese: A Review

A.H. Jana and P.K. Mandal

International Journal of Dairy Science, 2011, 6(4), 199-226.


Mozzarella cheese is a soft, unripened cheese variety of the Pasta-filata family which had its origin in the Battipaglia region of Italy. Mozzarella cheese was traditionally made from buffalo milk. It is made all over Italy, in other European countries and USA from cow milk, however the process needs to be modified accordingly. The finished cheese, lightly salted, is white, soft with a very lively surface sheen and has unique property of stretchability. Mozzarella cheese owes its characteristics mainly to the action of lactic acid on dicalcium-para-caseinate. Pure white color is the basic requirement of Mozzarella cheese, because of which buffalo milk is preferred over cow milk.. The current review discusses about the principle and chemistry of mozzarella cheese making, legal standards, mozzarella cheese manufacture, factors affecting quality of mozzarella cheese, composition of mozzarella cheese, value-added ingredients as additive,, equipment for mozzarella cheese manufacture, flavour of mozzarella cheese and the recent developments in mozzarella cheese manufacture. The microstructure and rheological characteristics of cheese, functional properties of mozzarella cheese for use on pizza, browning/blistering of mozzarella cheese, packaging, shelf life and storage changes of mozzarella cheese have been discussed at length in this review. Understanding the factors that determine the characteristics of the cheese product for its suitability for end usage can help the cheese makers to produce ‘tailor-made’ cheeses as per the whims and wishes of the food retailers and even the varied consumers.

ASCI-ID: 37-193

Cited References Fulltext

Similar Articles

Influence Whey Proteins on the Characteristics of Buffalo Mozzarella Cheese

International Journal of Dairy Science, 2015, 10(1), 12-23.

Development of Functional Fermented Oat Milk by Using Probiotic Strains and Whey Protein

International Journal of Dairy Science, 2019, 14(1), 21-28.

Effect of Flaxseed Mucilage, Sodium Chloride and Their Combination on Some Functional Properties of Sodium Caseinate Solution

International Journal of Dairy Science, 2020, 15(2), 62-71.

Cited By

Bioactive amines in Mozzarella cheese from milk with varying somatic cell counts

Food Chemistry, 2015, 178(), 229. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.084

Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts

Food Chemistry, 2015, 178(), 292. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.064

Detection of virgin coconut oil adulteration with animal fats using quantitative cholesterol by GC×GC–TOF/MS analysis

Food Chemistry, 2015, 178(), 128. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.035

Do Men and Women Laugh About Different Types of Humor? A Comparison of Satire, Sentimental Comedy, and Comic Wit in Print Ads

Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 2015, 36(1), 70. DOI: 10.1080/10641734.2014.912599

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant properties of roots extracts from the Tunisian Scabiosa arenaria Forssk

Industrial Crops and Products, 2015, 67(), 62. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.01.009

Bioactive Substances from Marine Fishes, Shrimps, and Algae and Their Functions: Present and Future

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2015, 55(8), 1114. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2012.686933

Application of nanotechnology in marine-based products: A review

Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 2015, (), 150211123002003. DOI: 10.1080/10498850.2013.788113

Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Phosphorylated Derivatives of Amlodipine

Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements, 2015, 190(1), 11. DOI: 10.1080/10426507.2014.909429

Understanding Employee Delight and Voice From the Internal Marketing Perspective

Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 2014, (), 1. DOI: 10.1080/19368623.2014.910482

Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

International Journal of Food Science, 2013, 2013(), 1. DOI: 10.1155/2013/367841

Ultraviolet-Visible and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Techniques Are Important Diagnostic Tools during the Progression of Atherosclerosis: Diet Zinc Supplementation Retarded or Delayed Atherosclerosis

BioMed Research International, 2013, 2013(), 1. DOI: 10.1155/2013/652604

Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Urban Community of Meerut City, India

ISRN Microbiology, 2013, 2013(), 1. DOI: 10.1155/2013/749629

The Use of Artificial-Intelligence-Based Ensembles for Intrusion Detection: A Review

Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing, 2012, 2012(), 1. DOI: 10.1155/2012/850160

Agromorphological Traits Variability of the Ethiopian Lentil and Exotic Genotypes

Advances in Agriculture, 2014, 2014(), 1. DOI: 10.1155/2014/870864

Oxidative Stress and Antimicrobial Activity of Chromium(III) and Ruthenium(II) Complexes on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

BioMed Research International, 2013, 2013(), 1. DOI: 10.1155/2013/906912

Antiradical and Cytotoxic Activities of Varying Polarity Extracts of the Aerial Part of Euphorbia hirta L.

Journal of Chemistry, 2013, 2013(), 1. DOI: 10.1155/2013/983253

Active coating for storage of Mozzarella cheese packaged under thermal abuse

Food Control, 2016, 64(), 10. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.12.002

An assessment of chemical and biological product use in aquaculture in Bangladesh

Aquaculture, 2016, 454(), 199. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.12.025

Calcium homeostasis in mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis of chick embryo cecal epithelial cells induced by Eimeria tenella infection

Research in Veterinary Science, 2016, 104(), 166. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.12.015

Prediction of the mechanical properties of structural recycled concrete using multivariable regression and genetic programming

Construction and Building Materials, 2016, 106(), 480. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.12.136

Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in naturally infected Phlebotomus tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata in a focus of human and canine leishmaniasis in western Turkey

Acta Tropica, 2016, 155(), 89. DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.12.018

Effects of Gymnema sylvestre extract on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glimepiride in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

Chemico-Biological Interactions, 2016, 245(), 30. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2015.12.008

Facile photocatalytic reactor development using nano-TiO2 immobilized mosquito net and energy efficient UVLED for industrial dyes effluent treatment

Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2016, 4(1), 319. DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2015.11.024

Magnetically modified peanut husks as an effective sorbent of heavy metals

Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2016, 4(1), 549. DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2015.10.039

Preparation of activated carbon from peanut shell by conventional pyrolysis and microwave irradiation-pyrolysis to remove organic dyes from aqueous solutions

Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2016, 4(1), 266. DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2015.11.018

Developing a novel workflow for natural gas lift optimization using advanced support vector machine

Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 2016, 28(), 626. DOI: 10.1016/j.jngse.2015.12.031

Reactive Oxygen Species and the Aging Eye

American Journal of Therapeutics, 2016, 23(1), e98. DOI: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e3181ea31ff

Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose

Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2016, 88(), 40. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.12.016

The validation of an algorithm for the management of paediatric cervical lymphadenopathy

International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 2016, 81(), 5. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.11.034

Reflective thinking, emotional intelligence, and speaking ability of EFL learners: Is there a relation?

Thinking Skills and Creativity, 2016, 19(), 97. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsc.2015.10.005

Study on the similarity of photonic crystal ring resonator cavity modes and whispering-gallery-like modes in order to design more efficient optical power dividers

Photonic Network Communications, 2016, (), . DOI: 10.1007/s11107-015-0592-1

Antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected gourd vegetables

Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2016, (), . DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-1886-0

Characterization of major and trace minerals, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses

Journal of Dairy Science, 2017, (), . DOI: 10.3168/jds.2016-12059

Technical note: At-line prediction of mineral composition of fresh cheeses using near-infrared technologies

Journal of Dairy Science, 2017, (), . DOI: 10.3168/jds.2017-12634

Effectiveness of the Thermal Treatments Used for Curd Stretching in the Inactivation of Shiga Toxin-Producing O157 and O26 Escherichia coli

BioMed Research International, 2017, 2017(), 1. DOI: 10.1155/2017/1609836

Microstructure and physicochemical properties reveal differences between high moisture buffalo and bovine Mozzarella cheeses

Food Research International, 2017, (), . DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.032

Functional properties of Mozzarella cheese for its end use application

Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2017, (), . DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-2886-z

Casein-Based Powders: Characteristics and Rehydration Properties

Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2017, (), . DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12319

Preparation and analysis of goat milk mozzarella cheese containing soluble fiber from Acacia senegal var. kerensis

African Journal of Food Science, 2018, 12(3), 46. DOI: 10.5897/AJFS2017.1652

Novel trends in engineered milk products

Journal of Dairy Research, 2016, 83(3), 268. DOI: 10.1017/S0022029916000479

The inclusion of fresh forage in the lactating buffalo diet affects fatty acid and sensory profile of mozzarella cheese

Journal of Dairy Science, 2018, (), . DOI: 10.3168/jds.2018-14710

Considerations for development of lactose-free food

Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism, 2018, (), . DOI: 10.1016/j.jnim.2018.11.003

Production technology and characterization of Fior di latte cheeses made from sheep and goat milks

Journal of Dairy Science, 2015, 98(3), 1402. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2014-7953

Microbiological safety and quality of Mozzarella cheese assessed by the microbiological survey method

Journal of Dairy Science, 2014, 97(1), 46. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2013-7026

Effect of storage temperature on the chemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics of pasta filata soft cheese containing probiotic lactobacilli

Food Science and Technology International, 2019, (), 108201321985456. DOI: 10.1177/1082013219854563

Factors affecting viability of selected probiotics during cheese-making of pasta filata dairy products obtained by direct-to-vat inoculation system

LWT, 2019, (), 108476. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108476

In vivo study of the immunomodulatory capacity and the impact of probiotic strains on physicochemical and sensory characteristics: Case of pasta filata soft cheeses

Food Research International, 2019, 125(), 108606. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108606

Diversity of traditional Caciocavallo cheeses produced in Italy

International Journal of Dairy Technology, 2019, (), . DOI: 10.1111/1471-0307.12640

Mathematical modeling of NaCl and KCl diffusion in mozzarella cheese using static and stirred brine

Heat and Mass Transfer, 2020, 56(7), 2203. DOI: 10.1007/s00231-020-02849-2

Performance Evaluation of a Biopolymer-based In-Package UV Activated Colorimetric Oxygen Indicator with Modified Atmosphere Packaged Mozzarella Cheese

Journal of Packaging Technology and Research, 2021, (), . DOI: 10.1007/s41783-021-00108-1

Water buffalo production in the Brazilian Amazon Basin: a review

Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2021, 53(3), . DOI: 10.1007/s11250-021-02744-w


Uşak Üniversitesi Fen ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi, 2021, (), . DOI: 10.47137/usufedbid.892530

Quality Characteristics and Consumer Acceptance of High-Moisture Mozzarella Obtained from Heat-Treated Goat Milk

Foods, 2021, 10(4), 833. DOI: 10.3390/foods10040833

Comparison of lactose free and traditional mozzarella cheese during shelf-life by aroma compounds and sensory analysis

LWT, 2021, 140(), 110845. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110845

Evaluation of the combined effect of temperature and potassium sorbate on physicochemical and microbial quality of modified atmosphere packaged sliced Mozzarella cheese

Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2021, 45(2), . DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.15136

Effects of shredding on the functionality, microstructure and proteolysis of low-moisture mozzarella cheese

International Dairy Journal, 2021, 117(), 104979. DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2021.104979

Changes in water mobility and protein stabilization of Mozzarella cheese made under different stretching temperatures

LWT, 2019, 104(), 16. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2019.01.022

Levels of biogenic amines in cheese: correlation to microbial status, dietary intakes, and their health risk assessment

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2020, 27(35), 44452. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10401-2

The Effect of Selected Factors on the Content of Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Macro-Elements in Raw Milk from Holstein-Friesian and Simmental Cows and Acid Curd Cheese (Tvarog)

Animals, 2020, 10(10), 1800. DOI: 10.3390/ani10101800

Effect of the stretching temperature on the texture and thermophysical properties of Mozzarella cheese

Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2020, 44(9), . DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.14703

Safety and technological application of autochthonous Streptococcus thermophilus cultures in the buffalo Mozzarella cheese

Food Microbiology, 2020, 87(), 103383. DOI: 10.1016/

Polyphasic Characterization of Microbiota of “Mastredda”, a Traditional Wooden Tool Used during the Production of PDO Provola dei Nebrodi Cheese

Applied Sciences, 2021, 11(18), 8647. DOI: 10.3390/app11188647

Comparison of computer vision system and colour spectrophotometer for colour measurement of mozzarella cheese

Applied Food Research, 2021, (), 100020. DOI: 10.1016/j.afres.2021.100020

Impact of Freezing on the Microbiological Quality and Physical Characteristics of Buffalo Mozzarella Cheese

Animals, 2021, 11(12), 3502. DOI: 10.3390/ani11123502

Impact of microbial transglutaminase and cooking time on functional properties of Mozzarella cheese analogues

International Journal of Dairy Technology, 2022, 75(1), 201. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0307.12831

Microbiome of industrialized Minas Frescal Cheese reveals high prevalence of putative bacteria: A concern in the One Health context

LWT, 2021, 139(), 110791. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110791

Negative Airbnb reviews: an aspect-based sentiment analysis approach

EuroMed Journal of Business, 2022, (), . DOI: 10.1108/EMJB-03-2022-0052

Predicting hybrid rice performance using AIHIB model based on artificial intelligence

Scientific Reports, 2022, 12(1), . DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-13805-x

Effects of the BHA and basil essential oil on nutritional, chemical, and sensory characteristics of sunflower oil and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets during repeated deep-frying

LWT, 2022, 163(), 113557. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2022.113557

Tryptophan front-face fluorescence and functional properties of whey: A preliminary study

LWT, 2022, 163(), 113589. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2022.113589

Encapsulation of house fly larvae (Musca domestica) meal by ionic gelation as a strategy to develop a novel nutritive food ingredient with improved aroma and appearance

LWT, 2022, 163(), 113597. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2022.113597

Variability of Meat and Carcass Quality from Worldwide Native Chicken Breeds

Foods, 2022, 11(12), 1700. DOI: 10.3390/foods11121700

A randomized phase II remote study to assess Bacopa for Gulf War Illness associated cognitive dysfunction: Design and methods of a national study

Life Sciences, 2021, 282(), 119819. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119819

Production of Bacillus velezensis Strain GB1 as a Biocontrol Agent and Its Impact on Bemisia tabaci by Inducing Systemic Resistance in a Squash Plant

Horticulturae, 2022, 8(6), 511. DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae8060511

Capillary electrophoresis for enzyme-based studies: Applications to lipases and kinases

Journal of Chromatography A, 2022, 1661(), 462687. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462687

Remediation and detoxification of oil contaminated marine intertidal sites through lipopeptide assisted washing strategy: An experimental and kinetic validation approach

Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2022, 180(), 113817. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113817

Intestinal microbiota of layer hens and its association with egg quality and safety

Poultry Science, 2022, (), 102008. DOI: 10.1016/j.psj.2022.102008

Calcium carbonate nanoparticles of quail’s egg shells: Synthesis and characterizations

Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 2022, 31(1), 1. DOI: 10.1515/jmbm-2022-0001

Composition, microstructure and chemical interactions during the production stages of Mozzarella cheese

International Dairy Journal, 2019, 88(), 34. DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2018.07.005

Investigating the drivers and acceptance of sustainable materials in Kuwait: A case study of CEB

Case Studies in Construction Materials, 2022, 17(), e01330. DOI: 10.1016/j.cscm.2022.e01330