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Research Article
Brazilian Propolis Effects on Growth, Productivity Performance, Gut Characteristics and Physiological Changes in Broiler Chickens

U.T. Mahmoud, O.A. Amen, T.J. Applegate and H.W. Cheng

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(5), 169-179.

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of dietary Brazilian propolis on the growth performance, physiological homeostasis and gut characteristics in broiler chickens reared under mild chronic heat stress. Materials and Methods: Five hundred and four 15 days old male broiler chicks were fed one of six diet (0.0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 3000 mg kg–1 propolis). Growth performance was evaluated in terms of Body Weight (BW), Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Intake (FI) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) at 2 weeks intervals to 42 day of age. At 42 day of age 12 birds from each group were randomly selected and sacrificed for determination of the relative weight of internal organs and cecal contents were collected for microbial enumeration. Duodenal, jejunal and ileal tissue samples were collected for measuring villus height and width, crypt depth and villus crypt ratio. Also, blood was collected for subpopulations of leukocytes counts and serum chemical and hormonal analysis. In addition, brain samples were collected for determination of the heat stress-induced changes of the Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance using the General Linear Models (GLM) procedure. Results: The results indicated that dietary propolis supplementation had no effect on growth performance and liver, heart, gizzard and spleen weights (p>0.05). While, compared to controls, the abdominal fat weight was increased with propolis supplementation (p = 0.035). Propolis did not affect cecal concentrations of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and total lactobacilli (p>0.05). However, compared to controls, the Bifidobacterium spp., population was lower in birds fed diet with propolis at 1000 mg kg–1 (p = 0.005). Propolis had no effect (p>0.05) on intestinal villus height and width, crypt depth and villus:crypt ratio. Compared to controls, propolis dietary supplementation did not affect the populations of eosinophils, monocytes and basophils; and serum concentrations of total proteins, globulins, phosphate, calcium, glucose and thyroid hormones as well as HSP70 mRNA expression in brain tissues (p>0.05, respectively). However, propolis regardless of dose reduced the number of heterophils, heterophil:lymphocyte ratio (H/L) and serum corticosterone and aminotransferase (AST) concentrations (p<0.05, respectively). In addition, all doses of propolis, except for 100 mg kg–1, significantly increased circulating lymphocytes and reduced uric acid concentrations. In addition, there was an effect of propolis on serum albumin and tri-iodothyronine:thyroxin (T3/T4) ratio. Compared to the control group, birds fed 250 mg kg–1 propolis had a significantly higher T3/T4 ratio; while both 100 and 3000 mg kg–1 propolis groups had significantly increased the serum albumin concentrations. Conclusion: It is concluded that dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis at the tested doses, improves health status of birds by reducing initiation of heat stress responses, such as reduced concentrations of corticosterone, H/L ratio, AST and uric acid and increased T3/T4 ratio.

ASCI-ID: 101-2246

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Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentrations on Broiler Chicken Performance from 28 to 49 Days

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2011, 10(8), 597-602.

Effect of High Peroxide Value Fats on Performance of Broilers in an Immune Challenged State

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2011, 10(9), 665-669.

The Potency of Chamomile Flowers (Matericaria chamomilla L.) as Feed Supplements (Growth Promoters) on Productive Performance and Hematological Parameters Constituents of Broiler

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2011, 10(9), 726-729.

Supplementation of Feed Grade Sodium Bisulfate in Broiler Diets Improves Feed Efficiency

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2011, 10(9), 670-676.

Determination of Broiler Femur Parameters at Different Growth Phases

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2011, 10(11), 849-853.

Effect of Varying Light Intensity on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Grown to Heavy Weights

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2011, 10(12), 921-926.

Effects of Co-administration of Phytase and NSPase on Broiler Performance and Bone Ash

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2011, 10(12), 933-939.

The Potential of Acacia angustissima Leaf Meal as a Supplementary Feed Source in Broiler Finisher Diets

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(1), 55-60.

Effect of Varying Light Intensity on Blood Physiological Reactions of Broiler Chickens Grown to Heavy Weights

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(2), 81-87.

Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Performance and Blood Serum Parameters of Broiler

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(2), 143-146.

Performance and Heterophil to Lymphocyte (H/L) Ratio Profile of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Feeding Time Restriction

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(2), 153-157.

Effect of Pellet and Mash Diets Associated with Biozyme Enzyme on Broilers Performance

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2006, 5(5), 485-490.

Efficacy of Herbomineral Toxin Binder ‘Vilocym Z’ in Amelioration of Mixed Mycotoxicosis in Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(3), 209-216.

The Marl as a Natural Supply on Broiler Chicken Feed: Effects on the Starter Performance, the Abdominal Fat and the Dropping Moisture

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(3), 225-228.

Influence of Enclosure Size on Growth of Breast and Leg Muscle Fibers in Domestic Fowl

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(5), 361-367.

The Hummoral Immune Response of Heat Stressed Broiler Chicks Fed Different Levels of Energy and Methionine

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(6), 400-404.

Influence of Dietary Prebiotic Addition on Digestibility and Intestinal Microflora of Young Male Broiler Chickens Exposed to Delayed Feed Access after Hatch

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(6), 408-416.

Use of Serratia marcescens for Feed Processing: Broiler Performance and Pathogenicity Assay

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(6), 424-426.

Histological Changes in the Broiler Embryonic Pipping Muscle Between Days 15 and 19 of Incubation

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(7), 427-432.

Dose-Responses of Broiler Chicks, Given Live Coccidia Vaccine on Day of Hatch, to Diets Supplemented with Various Levels of Farmatan® (Sweet Chestnut Wood Tannins) or BMD®/Stafac® in a 42-Day Pen Trial on Built-Up Litter

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(7), 474-481.

Effect of Crayfish Waste Meal on Performance Characteristics and Nutrient Retention of Broiler Finishers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(8), 496-499.

Test the Activity of Supplementation Clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) Powder, Oil and Aqueous Extract to Diet and Drinking Water on Performance of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Heat Stress

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(10), 635-640.

Does Inclusion at Low Levels of Organically Complexed Minerals Versus Inorganic Forms Create a Weakness in Performance or Antioxidant Defense System in Broiler Diets?

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(10), 666-672.

Resource-Use Efficiency in Small-Holder Broiler Production in Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(11), 700-705.

Influence of Photoperiod, Light Intensity and Their Interaction on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers Grown to Heavy Weights

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(12), 739-746.

The Effect of Improved Juice Wastes Mixture (IJWM) for Corn Substitution on Broilers’ Performance

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(2), 102-106.

Use of Lipe® as External Indicator, Replacing the Total Collection for Measuring the Coefficients of Metabolization of Nutrients and Metabolizable Energy for Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(2), 107-110.

Moringa olifera Leaf Meal as an Alternative Protein Feed Ingredient in Broiler Ration

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(5), 289-297.

Cassava Root Chips as an Alternative Energy Feed Ingredient in Broiler Ration

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(5), 298-306.

Assessment of Two Female Broiler Rearing Systems (Traditional and Modern) and Their Repercussion on Wellbeing, Corticosterone Concentration, Lesions in Adrenal Glands and Productive Parameters

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(6), 353-357.

Effect of a Lactic Acid Bacteria Based Probiotic, FloraMax-B11®, On Performance, Bone Qualities and Morphometric Analysis of Broiler Chickens: An Economic Analysis

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(6), 322-327.

Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Probiotic or Essential Oils on Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(9), 538-544.

Evaluation of Some Natural Antioxidant Sources in Broiler Diets: 1-Effect on Growth, Physiological, Microbiological and Immunological Performance of Broiler Chicks

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(10), 561-571.

Evaluation of Some Natural Antioxidant Sources in Broiler Diets: 2-Effect on Chemical and Microbiological Quality of Chilled and Frozen Broiler Meat

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(10), 572-581.

Effect of Either Powder or Encapsulated Form of Garlic and Phyllanthus niruri L. Mixture on Broiler Performances, Intestinal Characteristics and Intestinal Microflora

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(11), 676-680.

Evaluation of a Rice/Soy Fermentate on Performance and Volatilization of Odorants from Fresh Fecal Material When Included in Broiler Diets

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(12), 698-704.

Evaluating the Incidence of Gastrocnemius Tendon Rupture in Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(12), 685-688.

Effect of Canola and Olive Oils on Productive, Immunological and Some Biochemical Parameters of Broiler Chickens Fed Iso Caloric and High Caloric Diets

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(12), 726-734.

The Effect of Feeding Time Restriction During the Starter Period on Compensatory Growth and Thyroid Hormone Concentrations of Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(12), 740-745.

Effect of Nanocapsule Level on Broiler Performance and Fat Deposition

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(1), 31-35.

Effects of Age, Vitamin D3 and Fructooligosaccharide on Correlation of Different Bone Parameters in Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(3), 160-167.

Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Probiotic or Prebiotic on Growth Performance, Organ Weight, Blood Parameters and Antibody Titers Against Influenza and Newcastle in Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(2), 70-75.

Diet Selection for Protein Quality by Growing Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(8), 461-466.

Effect of Protein: Lysine Ratio on Energy and Nitrogen Metabolism in Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(7), 421-428.

Evaluation the Effects of Dietary Cholecalciferol Substitution with 1alpha-Hydroxycholecalciferol on Performance and Tibia Parameters in Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(9), 515-517.

Effects of Protein Levels and Supplementation of Methyl Group Donor on Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Broiler Chickens in the Tropics

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(10), 575-581.

Effect of Corn Substitution by Sorghum Grain with Low Tannin Content on Broilers Production: Animal Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Carcass Characteristics

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(10), 568-574.

Growth Performance and Histological Changes in Ileum and Immune Related Organs of Broilers Fed Organic Acids or Antibiotic Growth Promoter

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(10), 602-610.

Effect of Sources and Inclusion Levels of Zinc in Broiler Diets Containing Different Vegetable Oils During Summer Season Conditions on Meat Quality

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(11), 619-626.

Effect of Different Dietary Levels of Acid Whey Powder on Growth Performance and Immune Responses of Broiler Chicks

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(2), 67-71.

Effect of Vitamin C, Shackling and Crating Stress on Tonic Immobility Reactions of Broiler Chickens in Preslaughter

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(2), 72-75.

Effect of Light Color on Some of Performance Indices of Hybrid Cup 500-Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(2), 100-102.

Effect of Inclusion Inorganic, Organic or Nano Selenium Forms in Broiler Diets On: 1-Growth Performance, Carcass and Meat Characteristics

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(3), 135-143.

Effect of Inclusion Inorganic, Organic or Nano Selenium Forms in Broiler Diets On: 2-Physiological, Immunological and Toxicity Statuses of Broiler Chicks

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(3), 144-155.

Effect of Dietary Nanosilver on Broiler Performance

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(3), 177-182.

Influence of Photoperiod, Light Intensity and Their Interaction on Health Indices of Modern Broilers Grown to Heavy Weights

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(4), 183-190.

Timing of Light Exposure During Incubation to Improve Hatchability, Chick Quality and Post-Hatch Well-Being in Broiler Chickens: 21 or 18 Days

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(5), 293-299.

Histological Response of Broiler’s Immune Related Organs to Feeding Different Direct Fed Microbials

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(6), 331-337.

Energy Utilization from Various Fat Sources by Broiler Chickens at Different Ages

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(5), 257-261.

Palm Kernel Polysaccharides as a Feed Additive for Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(7), 394-397.

Effect of Liquid Nanocapsule Level on Broiler Performance and Total Cholesterol

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(7), 403-406.

Comparison of Incandescent, CFL, LED and Bird Level LED Lighting: Growth, Fear and Stress

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(8), 449-455.

Effect of Exposing Layer and Broiler Eggs to Red or White Light During Incubation

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(9), 491-496.

Coccidiosis Prevalence and Correlation with Intestinal Health of Broilers in Brazilian Agricultural Industries Between the Years 2012 and 2014

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(9), 511-515.

Complexed Zinc and Manganese Supplementation on Live and Processing Performance in Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(9), 537-540.

Suitability Mapping for Broiler Closed House Farm Using Analytical Hierarchy Process and Weighted Overlay with Emphasize on Environmental Aspects

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(10), 577-583.

Effect of Dried Rumen Content with and Without Cellulase in Diet on Carcass Quality of Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(12), 647-650.

On-Farm Resources and Renewable Energy in Broiler Chicken Production: Brinson Farms Case Study

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(2), 41-47.

Effect of Fermented Ginkgo biloba and Camelia sinensis-Based Probiotics on Growth Performance, Immunity and Caecal Microbiology in Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(2), 62-71.

Mid-Flock and Post-Harvest Spatial Characterization of Broiler Litter Gas Flux and Nutrients

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(5), 175-181.

Performance, Safety and Tissue Residue Study for Coated Sodium Butyrate Added to Broiler Feed

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(5), 161-174.

Evaluation of an Algal Beta-1,3-Glucan on Broiler Growth Performance and Immune Response

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(5), 201-210.

Comparative Effects of Blended Herbal Extracts and Mixed Prebiotics on Growth Performance, Carcass Yields and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(7), 264-270.

Indoor Fungal Load in Broiler Flocks Environment at Different Stages of Production Cycle

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(8), 297-303.

Effect of Partially-Protected Sodium Butyrate and Virginiamycin on Nutrient Digestibility, Metabolizable Energy, Serum Metabolites and Performance of Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(8), 304-312.

Spectrum of White Light During Incubation: Warm vs Cool White LED Lighting

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(9), 343-348.

Reduced Expression of Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70 Gene by Ascorbic Acid Supplementation in Broiler Chickens Exposed to Transportation Stress to Maintain the Quality of Meat and Hematological Parameters

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(11), 432-441.

Effects of High Fat Broiler Pre-starter Rations on Performance and Cost

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(12), 467-474.

Effect of an Exogenous Protease in Association with Carbohydrases in Broilers Infected with Coccidia

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(12), 475-486.

Roles of Fructooligosaccharides and Phytase in Broiler Chickens: Review

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(1), 16-22.

Evaluation of Bacteria from Gallus domesticus as a Potential Probiotic in Broiler Chicks: Effects on Growth Performance and Feed Conversion Ratio

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(2), 43-49.

Implications of Intensive Spatial Sampling of Broiler Litter: Characteristics and Gaseous Emissions

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(3), 60-68.

Effect of Threonine Supplementation on Broiler Chicken Productivity Traits

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(4), 160-168.

A Comparison of Essential Oil and Organic Acid Supplementation on the Live Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Broilers Fed a Diet Containing Palm Kernel Meal

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(5), 196-202.

Growth Performance and Carcass Analysis of Broilers Fed with Enhanced Quality Palm Kernel Meal

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(6), 215-220.

Effects of Amino Acid Composition in a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-fermented Mixture of Bovine Blood and Coconut Pulp on Growth Performance, Blood Cholesterol of Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(7), 274-280.

Lipid Formation and mRNA Expression of Key Adipogenic Genes in the Liver of Athens Canadian Random Breed and COBB Chicken Breeds During the Embryogenic Period

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(10), 374-380.

Study of the Correlation Between Intestinal Health and Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Broiler Chickens of Brazilian Agribusinesses Between the Years 2015 and 2016

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(10), 381-386.

Mineral Composition of Litter in Commercial Broiler Houses

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(2), 85-91.

Dosage Effects of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 2 as a Probiotic on the Percentage of Carcass, Abdominal Fat Content and Cholesterol Level in Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(2), 100-105.

Grasshopper Meal (Ornithacris cavroisi) in Broiler Diets in Niger: Bioeconomic Performance

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(3), 126-133.

Effect of Dietary Combinations of Garlic and Onion in Broiler Production

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(3), 147-153.

Using Different Feed Additives as Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter to Improve Growth Performance and Carcass Traits of Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(6), 255-261.

Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Different Levels of Palm Pollen on the Physiological Performance of the Broiler

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(6), 285-289.

Utilization of Fermented Palm Kernel Cake with Sclerotium rolfsii in Broiler Ration

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(7), 342-347.

Combination of Xylanase and Bacillus Direct-fed Microbials, as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoters, Improves Live Performance and Gut Health in Subclinical Challenged Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(8), 362-366.

The Effect of Fermented Sauropus androgynus Plus Bay Leaf Inclusion on the Hematologic and Lipid Profiles of Female Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(9), 410-417.

Effects of Self-Selection Diets Differing in Cereal Source and Protein Level on Broiler Performance

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(10), 479-485.

The Effect of Dietary Binahong [Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis] Leaf Meal Supplementation on Total Ileal Bacteria and Jejunal Histomorphology in Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(10), 473-478.

Effects of Different Dietary Levels of Palm Pollen (Phoenix dactylifera L.) On the Humoral Immunity and Hematology of Broiler Blood

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(11), 523-528.

Performance of Broilers Exposed to Used Litter and Fed Diets with Agolin® Poultry, BMD®/Stafac® or No Additive from 0-42 Days

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(11), 515-522.

The Effect of Adding Oak Bark Powder to the Diet on Some Productive and Immunological Characteristics of Broiler Chicks

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(1), 7-13.

Effects of Feeding Time Restriction During the Whole Rearing Period on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(1), 14-20.

Effects of Different Phase-Feeding Programs with Different Feed Forms on Broiler Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Intestinal Morphology

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(4), 181-186.

Cholesterol, Yield, Tibia and Clavicle Ash of Broilers fed High Available Phosphorus Corn and/or Phytase with/without Alum Litter Treatment

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(7), 349-352.

Exogenous Enzymes and the Digestibility of Nutrients by Broilers: A Mini Review

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(9), 404-409.

Kinetics of the Antimicrobial Activity Appearance in Ross 208 Broilers Chicken Tissues Following an Oxytetracycline Supplemented Diet

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(10), 454-458.

Alternative Bedding Materials to Improve Growth Performance and Welfare of Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(9), 431-437.

The Responses of Exogenous Enzymes (Multi-Enzymes) on the Productivity and Stage of Production of Broilers Fed Vegetable-sourced Diets

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(11), 515-522.

The Effect of Altering Feed Formula, Processing and Supplements on Clostridium spp. In Broilers Using the Fung Double Tube Method

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(11), 544-554.

Nutraceutical Effect of Ganoderma lucidum Fungus on Neonatal Broilers Diet

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(12), 641-647.

Betel Nut Husks as An Alternative Litter Materials for Broiler Production

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(2), 81-85.

Interactive Effects of Light-Sources, Photoperiod and Strain on Blood Physiological Variables of Broilers Grown to Heavy Weight

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(2), 86-96.

Lignite Coal and Biochar Reduce Ammonia Emissions from Broiler Litter

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(3), 137-141.

Adaptability of Broilers to Dietary Phosphorus Repletion and Depletion Programs

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(3), 130-136.

The Effects of Feeding Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Maggot Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal on Broiler Meat Quality

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(4), 186-192.

Assessing Scavenger Activity at Delmarva Broiler Farm Composters

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(8), 385-389.

Corn-Expressed Phytase Influence on Broiler Growth Performance

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(7), 330-337.

Effect of Beetroot Juice (Beta vulgaris) on Growth Performance, Blood Profile and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chicken

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(7), 303-308.

Effects of Inclusion Levels of Discarded Corn Grain on Growth Performance, Edible Portions and Economic Response in Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(8), 372-379.

Comparative Amino Acid Ileal Digestibility of Feed Ingredients Measured with Indigenous and Commercial Strains of Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(9), 396-402.

Effect of β-Mannanase Enzymes Supplementation to Energy Deficient Diets on Productive Performance, Physiological and Carcass Traits of Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(10), 455-466.

Efficacy of a Novel, Native Microbial Feed Supplement on the Mitigation of Necrotic Enteritis in Cobb 500 Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2022, 21(2), 57-64.

Actigen® Influence on the Gene Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Ross 708 Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(2), 114-123.

Evaluation of Lysine, Methionine and Threonine Needs of Broilers Three to Six Week of Age under Moderate Temperature Stress

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2002, 1(1,2,3), 16-21.

Effects of Dietary Manganese Proteinate or Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Plasma Insulin, Glucagon, Glucose and Serum Lipids in Broiler Chickens Reared Under Thermoneutral or Heat Stress Conditions.

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2002, 1(5), 145-149.

Effects of Diet and Cyclic Daily Heat Stress on Electrolyte, Nitrogen and Water Intake, Excretion and Retention by Colostomized Male Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2004, 3(5), 313-321.

The Effect of High Temperatures on Breeding and Survival of Japanese Quails That Are Bred under Different Temperatures

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2004, 3(7), 463-467.

An Attempt at Alleviating Heat Stress Infertility in Male Broiler Breeder Chickens with Dietary Ascorbic Acid

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2004, 3(9), 593-602.

Influence of Stocking Density and Feed Pellet Quality on Heat Stressed Broilers from 6 to 8 Weeks of Age

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2005, 4(2), 55-59.

Effect of Heat Shock at Early Growth Phase on Glucose and Calcium Regulating Axis in Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2005, 4(10), 790-794.

Effect of Chronic Heat Stress and Long-Term Feed Restriction on Broiler Performance

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2006, 5(2), 185-190.

The Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Performance of Laying Hens Exposed to Heat - Stress Environment in Late Laying Period

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2006, 5(10), 955-958.

Effect of Chronic Heat Stress on Broiler Performance in Jordan

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2007, 6(1), 64-70.

Influence of Dietary Energy and Poultry Fat on the Response of Broiler Chicks to Heat Therm

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2008, 7(4), 355-359.

Immunocompetence, Hepatic Heat Shock Protein 70 and Physiological Responses to Feed Restriction and Heat Stress in Two Body Weight Lines of Japanese Quail

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2008, 7(2), 174-183.

Protein Levels for Heat-Exposed Broilers: Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Energy and Protein Metabolism

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2007, 6(3), 187-194.

Effects of High Environmental Temperature on Blood Indices of Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2007, 6(6), 427-430.

Effects of High Environmental Temperature on the Productive Performance of Thai Indigenous, Thai Indigenous Crossbred and Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2007, 6(5), 349-353.

Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Diurnal Variations in Rectal Temperature of Shaver Brown Pullets During the Hot-Dry Season

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2007, 6(9), 642-646.

The Effect of Lighting Program and Melatonin on the Alleviation of the Negative Impact of Heat Stress on the Immune Response in Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2007, 6(9), 651-660.

The Role of Photoperiod and Melatonin on Alleviation of the Negative Impact of Heat Stress on Broilers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2008, 7(8), 749-756.

Involvement of Steroid Hormones, Corticosterone and Testosterone, in Synthesis of Heat Shock Proteins in Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2008, 7(8), 783-797.

Effects of Commutative Heat Stress on Immunoresponses in Broiler Chickens Reared in Closed System

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2008, 7(10), 964-968.

Comparative Ability to Tolerate Heat Between Thai Indigenous Chickens, Thai Indigenous Chickens Crossbred and Broilers by Using Percentage of Lymphocyte

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2008, 7(11), 1071-1073.

Pattern of Leptin Secretion and Oxidative Markers in Heat-Stressed Pigeons

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2008, 7(12), 1174-1176.

Effect of Some Water Supplements on the Performance and Immune System of Chronically Heat-Stressed Broiler Chicks

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2009, 8(5), 432-436.

Effects of Polyphenols Extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Seed Coat on Differential White Blood Cell Count in Broilers (Gallus domesticus) Exposed to High Environmental Temperature

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2009, 8(10), 957-962.

Effect of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (ASA) in Drinking Water on Productive Performance and Blood Characteristic of Layer Hens During Heat Stress

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2010, 9(4), 382-385.

Effect of Coriander Seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) as Diet Ingredient on Broilers Performance under High Ambient Temperature

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2010, 9(10), 968-971.

Effects of Polyphenols Extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Seed Coat on Body Weight, White Blood Cells, Bursa of Fabricius and NDV-HI Titer of Broilers under Chronic Heat Stress

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2010, 9(10), 988-995.

Effect of Coriander Seeds as Diet Ingredient on Blood Parameters of Broiler Chicks Raised under High Ambient Temperature

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2011, 10(2), 82-86.

Effect of Supplemental Electrolytes and Ascorbic Acid on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Raised During High Temperature Period in Nigeria

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(2), 125-130.

Performance, Carcass Traits and Hematological Parameters of Heat-Stressed Broiler Chicks in Response to Dietary Levels of Chromium Picolinate

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2006, 5(1), 65-69.

Test the Activity of Supplementation Clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) Powder, Oil and Aqueous Extract to Diet and Drinking Water on Performance of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Heat Stress

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(10), 635-640.

Effect of Dietary Protein Level and Strain on Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Broiler Chicks

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2012, 11(10), 649-653.

Histological Study of the Bursa of Fabricius of Broiler Chickens During Heat Stress

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(6), 377-378.

Effects of Intra-Egg Injection of Vitamin C on the Eggshell Mineral Absorption, Embryo Mortality and Hematological Variables in Chicks at Hot Incubation Temperature

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(8), 456-463.

Improving Performance of Laying Hens in Hot Regions by Desert Coolers

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2013, 12(10), 590-595.

Effects of Dietary Antioxidant on Performance and Physiological Responses Following Heat Stress in Laying Hens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2014, 13(5), 260-271.

Productive and Physiological Responses of Heat-Stressed Dominant Black Hens to Artificial Ventilation and Modified Layers Mash in Nigeria

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14(8), 471-478.

Impact of Heat Stress on Meat, Egg Quality, Immunity and Fertility in Poultry and Nutritional Factors That Overcome These Effects: A Review

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(3), 81-95.

Pale, Soft and Exudative (PSE) and Dark, Firm and Dry (DFD) Meat Determination in Broiler Chicken Raised Under Tropical Climate Management Conditions

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2017, 16(3), 81-87.

Evaluation of Haematological Responses and Blood Biochemical Parameters of Heat-stressed Broilers with Dietary Supplementation of Javanese Ginger Powder (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) and Garlic Extract (Allium sativum)

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2018, 17(9), 452-458.

Effect of Some Organic Acids on Body Weight, Immunity and Cecal Bacterial Count of Chicken during Heat Stress

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(6), 293-300.

Influence of Early Heat Conditioning and Betaine or Ammonium Chloride Supplementation on Performance and Physiological Parameters of Quail Chicks in Hot Climate

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(12), 562-569.

Polymorphism of Duck HSP70 Gene and mRNA Expression under Heat Stress Conditions

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(12), 591-597.

Heat Stress and Gut Microbiota: Effects on Poultry Productivity

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(7), 294-302.

Influence of Dietary Glutamine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Small Intestinal Morphology, Immune Response and Some Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2009, 8(1), 60-68.

Comparative Effects of Blended Herbal Extracts and Mixed Prebiotics on Growth Performance, Carcass Yields and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15(7), 264-270.

The Effects of Supplementing Lysophosphatidylcholine in Diet on Production Performance, Egg Quality and Intestinal Morphology of Laying Hens

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2019, 18(5), 238-243.

Ascertaining the Growth Performance, Ileal Gut Morphology, Gastro-Intestinal Development and Viability of Broiler Chicken Fed L-Methionine (L-Met) Supplemented Diet

International Journal of Poultry Science, 2020, 19(10), 477-485.

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Effect of green propolis on the productivity, nutrient utilisation, and intestinal morphology of Japanese laying quail

Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 2020, 49(), . DOI: 10.37496/rbz4920190198

Study of the effect of Bee Propolis on some biochemical, immunological traits and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens (Ross 308)

IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2020, 553(1), 012022. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/553/1/012022