Research Article
Effect of Industrial Effluents on Mineral Nutrition of Rice and Soil Health

S.M. Mehdi, G. Abbas, M. Sarfraz, S.T. Abbas and G. Hassan

Journal of Applied Sciences, 2003, 3(6), 462-473.


A research study was carried out to see the effect of industrial effluents on mineral nutrition of rice and soil health. For this purpose a site was selected near the bank of nullah Dek at “Shakirabad” in the Distt. Sheikhupura. The water of this nullah is contaminated by industrial effluents carrying different mineral metals. This water was applied to rice crop growing at the site. Three fine rice varieties namely Super Basmati, Shaheen Basmati and Basmati 2000 were transplanted which were grown up to maturity. The system of layout was Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Paddy and straw yields data were recorded. Water samples were collected before transplanting of rice and during rice season after every fifteen days interval from 3rd August to first of November which were analysed for different mineral metals contents. After the harvest of rice crop, soil, paddy and straw samples were analysed for different mineral metals. The analysis of Nullah Dek water showed that its total salts concentration was higher than the safe limit (>1 EC d Sm–1). Even SAR of the nullah water is high but it has no problem of high RSC. Among mineral metals, Zn, Mn, Cd and Sr are present but these are within safe limit except Sr. Soil analysis before transplanting of rice showed that all these samples were free of salinity/sodicity hazards. Among mineral metals, the zinc ranged between deficiency limit (<0.5 mg kg–1) to adequate amount (>1.0 mg kg–1). Copper, Mn and Fe were present in adequate amounts at the sampled site. Strontium, Nickel and cadmium were within safe limits. After the harvest of rice crop there was a slight decrease in pHs, ECe and SAR at both the depths of experimental site. The decrease in pHs was noted < 1 unit. Like pHs and ECe, Sodium adsorption ratio also decreased. The contents of all mineral metals i.e. Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Sr after harvest of rice crop were further increased. The contents of these metals were higher in upper layer than the lower horizon. The increase in Zinc contents was up to< 0.5 mg kg–1 soil, the increase in Copper contents was < 0.1 mg kg–1 soil, Iron and manganese were increased up to 1 mg kg–1 soil, Cadmium, Nickel and Strontium were increased < 0.1 mg kg–1 soil. Lead was determined after harvest of rice crop only which ranged from 2.68 to 3.33 mg kg–1. There was maximum paddy and straw yield of Shaheen Basmati followed by basmati 2000 and least of super basmati. The chemical analysis of paddy and straw samples indicated that there was a sufficient accumulation of all the heavy metals in both the plant parts. The accumulation of zinc (1.60-1.68 mg kg–1), copper (0.93-1.13 mg kg–1), iron (3.15- 3.50 mg kg–1), manganese (1.83- 1.88 mg kg–1) and lead (2.89-2.95 mg kg–1) were noted in paddy of different varieties. Cadmium (0.125- 0.175 mg kg–1) and nickel was found in minute quantities (0.073- 0.093 mg kg–1). Strontium was noted in higher quantities at the site of the study. Its concentration ranged between 26.74 to 30.73 mg kg-. Rice straw was also analysed for heavy metal contents because it is used as fodder for animals in this area. It is indicated from the results that the rice straw also contains sufficient quantities of different metals. It contains zinc (27.75-30.0 mg kg–1), copper (18.0 – 19.50 mg kg- 1), iron (274- 279 mg kg–1), manganese (2.33- 2.43 mg kg-1), lead (1.23-1.24 mg kg-1). Cadmium (0.20- 0.35 mg kg-1) and nickel was found in minute quantities (1.162 to 1.195 mg kg–1. Strontium was noted in higher quantities. Its concentration ranged between 46.68 to 48.86 mg kg–1.

ASCI-ID: 35-545

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