Transforming Growth Factor-{beta} Promotes Recruitment of Bone Marrow Cells and Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells through Stimulation of MCP-1 Production in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

F Zhang, S Tsai, K Kato, D Yamanouchi, C Wang, S Rafii, B Liu and K. C. Kent

The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2009, 284(26), 17564-17574. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.013987

Abstract

Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have recently been shown to be involved in the development of intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has profound stimulatory effects on intimal hyperplasia, but it is unknown whether these effects involve progenitor cell recruitment. In this study we found that although TGF-β had no direct effect on progenitor cell recruitment, conditioned media derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) stimulated with TGF-β induced migration of both total bone marrow (BM) cells and BM-mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and also induced MSC differentiation into smooth muscle like cells. Furthermore, overexpression of the signaling molecule Smad3 in VSMC via adenovirus-mediated gene transfer (AdSmad3) enhanced the TGF-β's chemotactic effect. Microarray analysis of VSMC stimulated by TGF-β/AdSmad3 revealed monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as a likely factor responsible for progenitor cell recruitment. We then demonstrated that TGF-β through Smad3 phosphorylation induced a robust expression of MCP-1 in VSMC. Recombinant MCP-1 mimicked the stimulatory effect of conditioned media on BM and MSC migration. In the rat carotid injury model, Smad3 overexpression significantly increased MCP-1 expression after vascular injury, consistent with our in vitro results. Interestingly, TGF-β/Smad3-induced MCP-1 was completely blocked by both Ro-32-0432 and rotterlin, suggesting protein kinase C- (PKC) may play a role in TGF-β/Smad3-induced MCP-1 expression. In summary, our data demonstrate that TGF-β, through Smad3 and PKC, stimulates VSMC production of MCP-1, which is a chemoattractant for bone marrow-derived cells, specifically MSC. Manipulation of this signaling system may provide a novel approach to inhibition of intimal hyperplasia.

ASCI-ID: 188-5356