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Research Article
Effect of Molybdenum, Chrome and Cadmium Ions on Metamorphosis and Erythrocytes Morphology of the Marsh Frog Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Anura)

Ilona E. Stepanyan, Anush S. Tsarukyan and Yury P. Petrov

Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2011, 4(2), 172-181.

Abstract

The effect of high concentrations of molybdenum (Mo), chrome (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd) ions on the metamorphosis of the Eurasian marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus under laboratory conditions have been studied. The effects of these metals at concentrations exceeding Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) on the growth, survival and erythrocytes morphology of tadpoles and young frogs have been determined. Morphometry of mature animals and tadpoles and also their erythrocytes for assessment of this effect were used. The high levels of tadpole mortality during 1-20 days of metamorphosis were detected when animals were exposed to high cadmium (2.4 mg L-1) and chrome (4.2 mg L-1) concentrations. After 20 days of metamorphosis, both the survival of tadpoles and the growth of 30 and 60 day animals, exposed to the high concentration of chrome were decreased. Cadmium treatment slightly decreased the survival of tadpoles after 20 days. The morphology of erythrocytes of Pelophylax ridibundus was also changed in experimentally polluted water. In experimental environment containing molybdenum and chrome, the area and perimeter of young frog erythrocytes slightly differed from controls. The effects of long-time exposure to cadmium on the morphology of erythrocytes (area and perimeter) were substantially different than those of chrome and molybdenum. Thus, high concentrations of cadmium and chrome in the aquatic habitats are a danger for amphibians, especially, for the early stages of metamorphosis.

ASCI-ID: 40-81

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