Pathological Findings at Radical Prostatectomy in Japanese Prospective Active Surveillance Cohort
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology,
2010, 40(10), 973-979. DOI: 10.1093/jjco/hyq082
The present study was carried out to analyze pathological features of prostatectomy specimens performed at different timing and trigger during active surveillance.
One hundred and thirty-four patients that fit a selection condition similar to the so-called Hopkins' criteria were enrolled into the present study between January 2002 and December 2003. Patients were recommended to start curable treatment when they showed prostate-specific antigen-doubling time of 2 years or shorter or pathological progression at 1-year re-biopsy. Median observation period was 61 months.
Fourteen patients underwent radical prostatectomy immediately after enrollment (Group A) whereas 28 patients underwent radical prostatectomy after substantial periods of active surveillance (Group B). Of the 28 Group B, trigger of radical prostatectomy was on protocol in 17 patients (Group B1) whereas 11 patients underwent radical prostatectomy by their preference (Group B2). Upgrade from initial biopsy was observed in 43% of Group A and 68% of Group B. Upgrade was more frequently observed in Group B1 than B2 with border line significance (P = 0.075). Perineural infiltration and positive surgical margin rates of Group B1 were significantly higher than those of B2 (P < 0.05).
Unfavorable pathological features of surgical specimens were more frequently observed in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy due to short prostate-specific antigen-doubling time or biopsy findings than those who underwent radical prostatectomy because of other reasons including patients' preference. Rates of unfavorable pathological features at radical prostatectomy that deviate initial selection criteria was high enough to support integration of frequent biopsies into active surveillance program.