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Research Article
Pretreatment of Rats with α-tocopherol Alter Liver and Kidney Protein, Alkaline Phosphatase Activity and Phospholipid Profile after 24 Hour Intoxication with Cadmium

G.E. Eriyamremu, M.A. Adaikpoh and F.O. Obi

Journal of Medical Sciences, 2006, 6(4), 615-620.

Abstract

Cell membrane composition and fluidity are altered in diseases and previous reports suggest that membrane lipid is altered in heavy metal toxicity. This study was carried out to assess the effect of cadmium alone and its combination with different doses (75, 150 and 750 mg) of α-tocophenylacetate on the phospholipid profile and alkaline phosphatase activity in the kidney and liver of rats. The results obtained show that in these tissues, cadmium significantly (p<0.05) increased the levels of protein compared with the control, in the liver it significantly raised total lipid levels and decreased it in the kidney. Vitamin E in the form of α-tocophenylacetate reversed these observations. Cadmium decreased alkaline phosphatase activity significantly (p<0.05) in both tissues; a trend that was counteracted by α-tocophenylacetate supplementation in a dose dependent pattern. In both the liver and kidney, cadmium treatment reduced the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and increased sphingomyelin (SGM). It raised the PC/PE and SGM/PC ratios, index of membrane fluidity. Vitamin E supplementation significantly reduced the SGM/PC ratios in a manner that appears to be dose related. In the liver the effect of the vitamin on the SGM/PC ratio range from about 400 to 300 to 800% in the 75, 150 and 750 mg supplemented groups, respectively. A similar trend was also observed in the kidney. We hypothesize that decreased membrane fluidity occasioned by increase in SGM/PC ratio occur in early cadmium toxicity and that vitamin E cushions the effect of cadmium by decreasing SGM/PC ratio.

ASCI-ID: 41-459

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