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Research Article
Usefulness of Certain Clinical and Laboratory Parameters in Predicting Presence of HIV Infection in Adult HIV/AIDS Positive Patients in a Limited Resource Setting

S.A. Adefemi, O.M. Olubiyi and O.H. Jokotola

Journal of Medical Sciences, 2015, 15(1), 32-37.

Abstract

Favourable outcome in HIV/AIDS patients have been linked to early diagnosis and initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy but studies shows that patient often presents late for care to the health care provider, hence the need for a proactive role of the care givers. The objective of this study is to look at the socio-demographic characteristics of adult people living with HIV/AIDS, as well as identify the clinical and laboratory parameters which could be useful in obtaining clues for early diagnosis in the face of non classical presentation. This is a retrospective review of computerized records of first time attendees at Special Treatment Clinic (STC) of Federal Medical Centre, Bida with HIV/AIDS between Jan 2007-Dec 2010. The centre offers free antiretroviral therapy via support from the Federal Government of Nigeria/PEPFAR through the Institute of Human Virology of Nigeria (IHVN). All patients diagnosed or referred from other hospitals, within the study period, had their blood samples taken for haemoglobin, creatinine, alanine transaminase and CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count estimation at the first visit to the centre as part of the routine work up to assess their status and need for antiretroviral therapy. A total of 1100 HIV positive adult patients presented for the first time to special treatment clinic during the period. This was made up of 724 (65.8%) females and 376 males (34.2%) with a mean age of 34.66±9.84 years. Men are marginally older than women with mean ages of 38.82 and 32.50, respectively and this is statistically significant. A greater proportion of the patients have no form of education (39.5%) they are mostly women (80.7%) who are unemployed and full time housewife. This is also statistically significant. Most of the patients are married (89.6%) but greater proportions don`t know the status of their partner. The males have higher baseline mean weight, height, haemoglobin (Hb), creatinine (Cr) and alanine transaminase (ALT) than the female and this difference is statistically significant (p<0.001). However, the females had a higher mean CD4 T-lymphocyte count than the males. Of all the markers tested only the weight is positively correlated to CD4 T-lymphocyte count (r = 0.251, p<0.01). Sex, is weakly positively correlated but not statistically significant. The other markers are negatively correlated with CD4 with only age having statistically significant relationship. It can be inferred from this study that socio-demographic characteristics that could give early clue of diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, includes, females in age group (20-30), not being educated, being a full time housewife, having a partner that died from HIV/AIDS. In addition, presenting with a significant weight loss is correlated with having a lower CD4 T lymphocyte.

ASCI-ID: 41-1286

Cited References Fulltext

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