Search. Read. Cite.

Easy to search. Easy to read. Easy to cite with credible sources.

Research Article
Studying the Heavy Metals Composition and the Impact of Different Common Solvents on the Extraction Efficiency of Phytochemical Secondary Metabolites from the Leaves of Ziziphus spina-christi Grown in Jordan

Sabah M.J. Khaleel

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2018, 17(8), 392-398.

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of different common solvents on the extraction efficiency of phytochemical secondary metabolites and to determine the heavy metals composition of Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) medicinal plant available in Jordan. Methodology: The dry leaves from Z. spina-christi were extracted using different solvents like water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-hexane. Then the extraction yield, the total of flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents and heavy metals concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Co were investigated. Results: The highest extract yield was obtained from water extract (46.2%). Ethyl acetate has the highest flavonoids content (145.3±2.3 mg QE g–1 DW extract) while methanol extract has the highest concentration of tannins (57.2±5.8 mg GAE g–1 DW). The crude powder of Z. spina-christi leaves has appreciable amount of alkaloids (10.1±0.02 mg g–1) with permissible heavy metals concentrations. Conclusion: The yield and extraction efficiency of secondary bioactive compounds from Z. spina-christi leaves were solvent dependent. The leaves extracts of Z. spina-christi plant could be a potential source of food products and useful drugs.

ASCI-ID: 100-2595

Cited References Fulltext

Similar Articles


Determination of Zinc Contents in Iranian Flat Breads

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2005, 4(5), 294-297.

Trace Heavy Metal Levels of Some Bouillon Cubes, and Food Condiments Readily Consumed in Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2007, 6(2), 122-127.

Bioaccumulation Potential of Heavy Metals in Edible Fungal Sporocarps from the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2008, 7(1), 93-97.

Assessment of Peppers and Soils for Some Heavy Metals from Irrigated Farmlands on the Bank of River Challawa, Northern Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2008, 7(2), 244-248.

Mercury Content of Fishes from Some Streams in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2007, 6(6), 633-637.

Distribution of Heavy Metals in Bones, Gills, Livers and Muscles of (Tilapia) Oreochromis niloticus from Henshaw Town Beach Market in Calabar Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2009, 8(8), 1209-1211.

A Comparative Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Commercial Wheat Flours Sold in Calabar-Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2009, 8(5), 585-587.

Determination of Proximate Composition, Ascorbic Acid and Heavy Metal Content of African Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum)

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2009, 8(3), 225-226.

Assessment of Trace Metal Composition in Fish Samples from Nworie River

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2010, 9(1), 81-85.

The Level of Heavy Metals in Selected Vegetables Crops Collected from Baghdad City Markets

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2010, 9(7), 683-685.

Chemical Characteristics of Drinking Water of Peshawar

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2010, 9(10), 1017-1027.

Seasonal Variation of Metal Concentrations in Catfish, Blue Crab and Crayfish from Warri Coastal Water of Delta State, Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2010, 9(11), 1118-1121.

Toxic Metals Uptake by Spinach (Spinacea oleracea) and Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Cultivated in Sokoto: A Comparative Study

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2011, 10(6), 572-576.

Heavy Metal Content in Soil and Medicinal Plants in High Traffic Urban Area

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2011, 10(7), 618-624.

Heavy Metal Contamination of Ready-to-use Herbal Remedies in South Eastern Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2011, 10(10), 959-964.

Heavy Metals Content of Some Medicinal Plants from Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2012, 11(9), 855-859.

Evaluation of Lead and Cadmium Heavy Metal Residues in Milk and Milk Products Sold in Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2013, 12(2), 168-171.

Effect of Processing Methods on Heavy Metal Concentrations in Commonly Consumed Green Leafy Vegetables Available in Sri Lankan Market

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2015, 14(12), 1026-1033.

Potential Health Impacts of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fresh and Marine Water Fishes Consumed in Southeast, Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2018, 17(12), 647-653.

Heavy Metal Contamination of Selected Foods from the Oil Producing State of Akwa Ibom in Southern Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2019, 18(12), 1115-1119.

Phytochemical and Nutrient Evaluation of Spondias Mombin Leaves

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2007, 6(6), 613-615.

Phytochemicals Investigation on a Tropical Plant, Syzygium cumini from Kattuppalayam, Erode District, Tamil Nadu, South India

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2009, 8(1), 83-85.

Comparative Microbial Quality of Jedi Drinks Sold in Two Major Cities in Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2010, 9(8), 769-772.

Chemical Composition and Phytochemical Screening of the Leaves of Hymenocardia ulmoides and Vitex ferruginea

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2011, 10(12), 1183-1189.

Phytochemical Analysis, Nutritional Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of White Mulberry (Morus alba)

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2012, 11(5), 456-460.

Extraction and Isolation Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Activity of Limonoid Compounds from Orange Waste Juice

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2013, 12(8), 730-735.

Evaluation of Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Compositions of Carapa procera (Family Meliaceae)

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2014, 13(6), 359-365.

Anti-Nutrient, Phytochemical and Free Fatty Acid Composition of Dehulled and Undehulled Sweet Princess Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Seed Flour

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2014, 13(10), 589-592.

Nutrient, Anti-Nutrients and Phytochemical Compositions of Bosquiae angolensis Fruits "oze" Consumed as Snacks in Enugu State, Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2015, 14(5), 269-273.

Effect of Sodium Benzoate and Storage Periods on Nutrient, Phytochemical and Organoleptic Attributes of Mature Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Fruit Juice

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2016, 15(3), 223-228.

Effects of Tephrosia candida DC Leaf and its Mixtures with Guinea Grass on in vitro Fermentation Changes as Feed for Ruminants in Nigeria

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2006, 5(1), 14-18.

Profile of the African Bread Fruit (Treculia africana)

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2009, 8(7), 1005-1008.

Enhancing Secondary Metabolites (Emphasis on Phenolics and Antioxidants) in Plants through Elicitation and Metabolomics

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2018, 17(9), 411-420.