Effects of HIV Infection and Anti-retroviral Therapy on Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Robert A. Ngala
Trends in Molecular Sciences,
2014, 6(1), 1-12.
Several studies show that HIV infection and highly active anti-retroviral therapy increases the risk of patient development of cardiovascular diseases. The increased cardiovascular disease risk factors such as total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, hypertension and the pathogenesis of HIV infection increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study shows the effect of HIV infection and HAART on lipid metabolism and hypertension; the cardiovascular risk factors. Overnight fasted blood samples were drawn from the median cubital vein on the anterior forearm into plain and fluoride oxalate tubes. The serum from the plain tubes was used to estimate the lipid profile:total cholesterol, High density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglycerides and liver function diagnostic enzymes on an autoanalyser. Haemoglobin concentration was determined from the anticoagulated blood and Cluster of differentiation CD4 was done with Becton Dickinson FACSCount®. The plasma from the fluoridated anticoagulated blood was used to estimate fasting blood glucose. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Markers of cardiovascular diseases, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, diastolic and systolic blood pressures were significantly (p<0.001) elevated. Aspartate amino transferase and Alanine amino transferase were significantly (p<0.0009) reduced in HAART- experienced patients. The significantly increased (p<0.001) total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and decreased (p<0.05) high density lipoprotein are indicators of cardiovascular risk. Diastolic and systolic blood pressures were significantly (p<0.001) positively correlated to the duration of HAART. Some combinations of highly active antiretroviral drugs were cardio protective at least in the short run.
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